Multifbs Ltd and its Mechanism

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Multifbs Ltd and its Mechanism


Industrial attachment is the process, which builds understanding, skills and attitude of the performer, which improves his knowledge in boosting productivity and services. University education provides us vast theoretical knowledge as well as more practical attachment, in despite of all these industrial attachment helps us to be familiar with technical support of modern machinery, skill ness about various processing stages.

It also provides us sufficient practical knowledge about production management, work study, efficiency, industrial management, purchasing, utility and maintenance of machinery and their operation techniques etc. the above mentioned can not be achieved successfully by means of theoretical knowledge only. This is why it should be accomplished with practical knowledge in which it is based on. Industrial attachment makes us reliable to be accustomed with the industrial atmosphere and improve courage and inspiration to take self responsibility.

Textile education can’t be completed without industrial training. Because this industrial training minimizes the gap between theoretical and practical knowledge and make us accustomed to industrial environment. I got an opportunity to complete two-months long industrial training at Multifabs Ltd., which is a 100% export-oriented composite Knit Dyeing Industry. It has well planned & equipped fabric dyeing-finishing and garments units in addition to facilitate knitting and knitwear manufacturing. So the practical knowledge it’s not possible to apply the theoretical knowledge in the practical field. For any technical education, practical experience is almost equal important in association with the theoretical knowledge.


Name of the factory : Multifabs Ltd.

Types of the factory : 100% Export oriented Knit composite.

Year of the establishment : 1992

Total land area: One acre

Number of building and floor: Three Buildings

Floor space of each section: 3300sf

Total number departments: Nine

Address of factory: Kashimpur (Noyapara), Konabari, Gazipur, Bangladesh.

Tel: 9297450-52, 9298396

Fax: 880-2-9297188

Head Office:

House # 532 (2nd Floor), Lane # 11

DOHS, Baridhara, Dhaka-1206, Bangladesh

Tel: 8861806, 8850008, 8853758, Fax: 880-2-8817496


History of the project development:

Multifabs Ltd was established in September at 1991 with a vision to build a premium Garments house to rival the finest in South Asia. The company founders imagined a manufacturing company with the ability to deliver impeccable quality and punctual shipment in a framework of a professional, reliable and sincere business atmosphere.

Since then, Multifabs Ltd has strategically taken orders that enhanced and enriched both its employee’s technical skills as well as its level of quality. The company is now a position, in accordance with its founding vision to compete in the area of high fashion and succeed with immaculate consistency.

Multifabs Ltd specializes in the manufacture of high quality men’s Tee shirts/sweaters/polo shirts. The Company’s Brand new machinery includes highly specialized equipment needed in the evolvement of high quality products. The company currently exports its garments to its customers in France, Belgium and The Netherlands.

Multifabs Ltd has a dedicated and professional corporate management Team with over a decade of experience in the field. Its production staff directly recruited from the Top garments houses of the country. The managing director, Heads the company and they form a dynamic team able to address the high demands of such an industry.

Multifabs Ltd specialized in the manufacture of high quality men’s tee shirt/sweaters/polo shirt. We also take order in varied print and fancy embroidery. The company brand new machinery includes highly specialized equipment needed in the productive of high quality products.

Bangladesh is a hotbed of garments manufacturing, now ranking fourth in the list of garments exporting nations. Unfortunately, the country, as a whole, has been unable to break into the arena of high fashion as most of its exports cater to the lower end of the clothing hierarchy.

With this in mind, Multifabs Ltd seeks to become a driving force in an initiative by a selected few companies to change the foreign image of garments industry in Bangladesh by providing first class quality with rock hard commitment. The company wants to present itself as a “Different kind of company in a Different kind of Bangladesh”.


Comfort, choice, trends, quality all standards which guide Multifabs Ltd in the creation of it’s products.

Design and material are carefully studied to offer you a collection that is always up to date, be it for the basic products or the trendy products.

Multifabs Ltd has a perfect command of these techniques and only offers you the higher quality of these knitted fabrics.

For environment reasons, Multifabs Ltd has chosen to have all the products of its range processed “AZO FREE”. All the dyes used are free from Azo-type pigments, which are known to be harmful to the skin and to the environment. Multifabs use excellent color fastness through the use of “reactive” pigment.


Child Care Centre, Female Prayer Space, medical centre, wide dining space and all other necessary supporting facilities are provided to ensure a very pleasing working environment for all as well as to enrich the quality of production.

Product Line:


· Men

· Women

· Children.


Polo Shirt:

· Men

· Women

· Children

Buyer name:








Different Departments of Mulifabs knit composite unit:

Knitting Section:

01. Knitting

02. Inspection

Dyeing section:

01. Batch section

02. Dye house

03. Dyeing lab.

04. Quality control

05. Finishing

Garments section:

01. Merchandising

02. Sample

03. Cutting Section

04. Sewing Section

05. Finishing Section

06. Printing section

Maintenance section:

01. Electrical

02. Mechanical

Store Section

Administration Section

Security Section

Marketing Section

Production Planning & Control

Human Resource & Development Section

0 3. Management system

Manpower Management:

Manpower management is also called as Human resourse management which means employing people, developing their resources, utilizing and maintaining.

The processes involved are:

1. Managing

2. Planning

3. Organizing

4. Directing

5. Controlling

6. Right person for right job.

7. Capacity building

8. Personal co-ordination

9. Divide and rule.





Factory manager
Maintenance Manager
Knitting Manager
Dyeing Manager
Finishing Manager
Q.C Manager
Ass. Manager
Shift Officer
Ass. Manager
Shift Officer
Shift Officer
Shift Officer
Electrical Incharge
Mechanical Incharge



In business, administration consists of the performance or management of business operations and thus the making or implementing of major decisions. Administration can be defined as the universal process of organizing people and resources efficiently so as to direct activities toward common goals and objectives.

Administrator can serve as the title of the general manager or company secretary who reports to a corporate board of directors. This title is archaic, but, in many enterprises, this function, together with its associated Finance, Personnel and management information systems services, is what is intended when the term “the administration” is used.


1. Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do it, when to do it, and who should do it. It maps the path from where the organization is to where it wants to be. The planning function involves establishing goals and arranging them in logical order. Administrators engage in both short-range and long-range planning.

2. Organizing involves identifying responsibilities to be performed, grouping responsibilities into departments or divisions, and specifying organizational relationships. The purpose is to achieve coordinated effort among all the elements in the organization (Coordinating). Organizing must take into account delegation of authority and responsibility and span of control within supervisory units.

3. Staffing means filling job positions with the right people at the right time. It involves determining staffing needs, writing job descriptions, recruiting and screening people to fill the positions.

4. Directing (Commanding) is leading people in a manner that achieves the goals of the organization. This involves proper allocation of resources and providing an effective support system. Directing requires exceptional interpersonal skills and the ability to motivate people. One of the crucial issues in directing is to find the correct balance between emphasis on staff needs and emphasis on economic production.

5. Controlling is the function that evaluates quality in all areas and detects potential or actual deviations from the organization’s plan. This ensures high-quality performance and satisfactory results while maintaining an orderly and problem-free environment. Controlling includes information management, measurement of performance, and institution of corrective actions.

6. Budgeting, exempted from the list above, incorporates most of the administrative functions, beginning with the implementation of a budget plan through the application of budget controls.

Human resource policy

Human resources:

Human resources is a term used to describe the individuals who comprise the workforce of an organization, although it is also applied in labor economics to, for example, business sectors or even whole nations. Human resources is also the name of the function within an organization charged with the overall responsibility for implementing strategies and policies relating to the management of individuals (i.e. the human resources). This function title is often abbreviated to the initials ‘HR’.

Human resources is a relatively modern management term, coined in the 1960s.[citation needed] The origins of the function arose in organizations that introduced ‘welfare management’ practices and also in those that adopted the principles of ‘scientific management’. From these terms emerged a largely administrative management activity, co-ordinating a range of worker related processes and becoming known, in time as the ‘personnel function’. Human resources progressively became the more usual name for this function, in the first instance in the United States as well as multinational corporations, reflecting the adoption of a more quantitative as well as strategic approach to workforce management, demanded by corporate management and the greater competitiveness for limited and highly skilled workers.


The use of the term ‘human resources’ by organizations to describe the workforce capacity available to devote to the achievement of its strategies has drawn upon concepts developed in Industrial/Organizational Psychology and System Theory. Human resources has at least two related interpretations depending on context. The original usage derives from political economy and economics, where it was traditionally called labor, one of four factors of production – although this perspective has shifted as a consequence of further ongoing research into more strategic approaches.This first usage is used more in terms of ‘human resources development’ of the individuals within an organization, although the approach can also be applied beyond the level of the organization to that of industry sectors and nations .

Key functions:

Human Resources may set strategies and develop policies, standards, systems, and processes that implement these strategies in a whole range of areas. The following are typical of a wide range of organizations:

1. Recruitment, selection, and on boarding (resourcing)

2. Organizational design and development

3. Business transformation and change management

4. Performance, conduct and behavior management

5. Industrial and employee relations

6. Human resources (workforce) analysis and workforce personnel data management

7. Compensation, rewards, and benefits management

8. Training and development (learning management)

Human resources management trends and influences:

In organizations, it is important to determine both current and future organizational requirements for both core employees and the contingent workforce in terms of their skills/technical abilities, competencies, flexibility etc. The analysis requires consideration of the internal and external factors that can have an effect on the resourcing, development, motivation and retention of employees and other workers.

External factors are those largely out-with the control of the organization. These include issues such as economic climate and current and future labor market trends (e.g., skills, education level, government investment into industries etc.). On the other hand, internal influences are broadly controlled by the organization to predict, determine, and monitor—for example—the organizational culture, underpinned by management style, environmental climate, and the approach to ethical and corporate social responsibilities.

Responsibility of production officer:

1. To give dye-line or the program slip according to daily production plan, batch preparation & PH check.

2. To rectify the finished fabric which rejected from quality control department

3. To check daily production report.

4. To study dye & chemicals nature delivery by the manufacture & applied them correctly to the production to get best product

5. Program making, sample checking color measurement.

6. Control the supervisor’s operators & helpers of machines.

7. Overall supervision of dyeing & finishing.

8. Dyes & chemicals requisition issue & check.

9. Execute production activities according to schedules.

10. To work in production line and perform duties on rotating shifts.

11. Monitor and ensure production output meet targets.

Job descriptions of production officer:

Job descriptions are essential. Job descriptions are required for recruitment so that you and the applicants can understand the role. Job descriptions are necessary for all people in work. A job description defines a person’s role and accountability. Without a job description it is not possible for a person to properly commit to, or be held accountable for, a role. As an employee you may have or be given the opportunity to take responsibility for your job description. This is good. It allows you to clarify expectations with your employer and your boss.

Title: Production officer:

Dept: Dyeing

Report to: Senior production officer.

Job summary: To plan execute & follow up the production activities & control the quality production with related activities.

Title: Senior production officer:

Dept: Dyeing.

Report to: Dyeing manager.

Job summary: 1. To plan execute & follow up the production activities & control the quality production with related activities.

2. Establish and maintain effective working relationships with co-workers, supervisors and the general public.

3. Perform reception duties in and efficient, professional and courteous manner.

4. Maintain regular consistent and professional attendance, punctuality, personal appearance, and adherence to relevant health & safety procedures.

5. Pursue personal development of skills and knowledge necessary for the effective performance of the role.

04. Raw material

Raw material is a unique substance in any production oriented textile industry. It plays a vital role in continuous production and for high quality fabric.

Types of raw material:

a. Yarn

b. Dye stuff

c. Chemical and auxiliaries

Name and source:


The raw material for the yarn dying is gray yarn. Generally raw material collect form local or Indian spinning factory. Another raw material is collect form Zarma such as dye material.


Mellange is produced by blending different amount of top dyed fibre with grey fibre. Different types of mellange used in knitting are:


White/Ecru mellange Grey mellange Anthra mellange

Sources of mellange:

  1. Shohag pur
  2. Thermax

c. Patartoli

  1. Prime

Sources of polyester:

a. Kader Synthetic.

  1. China.

Sources of Lycra:

* Brand : Roica

Country : Taiwan.

* Brand : Texlon

Country : Korea.

*Brand : Acelen

Country: China

Chemicals and their function

Hydrogen peroxide:

Function: Bleaching

Use: It’s help to increase the absorbency of the fibre

Soda ash:

Function: color fixing.

Use: it’s help to fixed the color.

Acetic acid:

Function: Neutrilization.

Use: 1. To remove the chemical poison.

2. To control the PH of the solution.

Formic Acid:

Function: Neutrilization.

Use: To remove the permanent color of the fibre.

Caustic Soda:

Function: Scouring.

Use: To remove the dust particales from the fibr.


Function: Stripping

Use: 1. To remove the color from the yarn.

2.To wash the machine.

Kappatex –R98:

Function: Stripping

Use: To remove the color from the yarn.

Albatex –AB-45:

Function: Buffering.

Use: control the PH.

Uvitex FBF:

Function: optical brightener.

Use: Optical brightener.

Invatex PC:

Function: Peroxide killer

Use: Remove Peroxide.

Glubar salt:

Function: Electrolight.

Use: Its help to dye absorbe in the iner side of the yarn.


Over all view of the factory

Layout of Dyeing and Finishing section

Layout of knitting section in Multifabs Ltd.

06. Production Planning & Sequence of operation

Production Planning: At its core, production planning represents the beating heart of any manufacturing process. Its purpose is to minimize production time and costs, efficiently organize the use of resources and maximize efficiency in the workplace.

Production planning incorporates a multiplicity of production elements, ranging from the everyday activities of staff to the ability to realize accurate delivery times for the customer. With an effective production planning operation at its nucleus, any form of manufacturing process has the capability to exploit its full potential. Different section of production—

A. Laboratory

Laboratory is the most important part of dyeing Industry. An efficient laboratory can increase the efficiency of dyeing. So, laboratory in-charge is sometimes called pilot. Before bulk production a sample is sent to buyer for approval. Laboratory supplies the recipe to the floor.

Purpose of Laboratory:

  1. To shade collection.
  2. To minimize the deviation between bulk and laboratory.

2. To get color approval from buyer.

  1. To supply recipe of the floor.

Machine specification:

Machine-01: Sample dyeing m/c

Name: Starlet

Model: DL-600

Made by: Koriya+China


Temperature: 140°c

Power: 220w

Number of pot: 16

Machine-02: Sample dyeing m/c

Name: Rota Dyer (Tube m/c)

Made by: China

Temperature: 135°c


Power: 220w

Number of pot: 14

Machine-03: Sample dyeing m/c

Name: Bangla m/c

Temperature: 140°c

Number of pot: 14

Power: 220w

Machine-04: Dry m/c

Name: Daclim starlet

Made by: Korie

Model: 0F-02GW

Voltage: 220

Serial number: M070037

Code number: AAA12255

Temperature: 300°c

Machine-05 : Washing m/c

Machine name : Indesit

High temperature : 90°c

Cold temperature : 40°c

Model number : WGD836

Some equipments used in QC lab of dyeing:

1. Wash cator-71: Color fastness to wash, shrinkage and spirality test.

2. Sample cutter: GSM measurement.

3. Perspirometer: Color fastness to water, sea water, perspiration (Acid, Alkali)

4. Crock meter: Color fastness to rubbing.

5. Color matching cam binate: For visual assessment and rating or grading of color fastness.

6. Grey scale: For visual assisment and rating or grading of color fastness.

7. Ph meter: To measure ph test of solution.

8. Balance: For weight dyes & chemical.

Measurement of strength of dyestuff:

Normally, commercial dyestuff are marketed in solid powder or soluble form and consisting not only dye but also other chemical s and auxiliaries eg salt, dispersing agent, solubilizing agent etc. So the strength of dyestuff must be measured to determine its quality.

Dyestuff can be measured in ways—-

By color matching:

At first sample fabric is dyed with a dyestuff of known strength then the sample is dyed with unknown strength. Match with the previous shade obtained from dyeing by known strength dyestuff. Thus by comparison the strength of unknown dyestuff in determined.


Software controlled fabric engineering techniques are employed to set and monitor the fabric dimension in knitting. Multifabs has knitting m/c (Circular and flat bed knit) with various gauge and diameters to produce Jersey, PK, Rib, D/J.



















Knitting is the process of producing a fabric by forming a series of connected loops from a series of yarn. In this method fabric is produced by intermeshing of loops.


Warp knitting: each loop in the horizontal direction is made from a different thread and the number of threads used to produce such a fabric is at least equal to the number of loops in a horizontal row.

Weft knitting: a horizontal row of loops can be made using one thread and the thread runs in horizontal direction.

Raw material for knitting:

The raw material for knitting is the yarn. Different types of yarn of wide range of count are used. Different types of yarn used in knitting section that’s are given below:

Cotton = 24S, 26s, 30S, 32S, 34S, 40S

Polyester =75D, lO0D

Spandex yarn =20D, 40D, 70D

Grey Mélange (C =24S, 26S

Ecru Mélange (C-85% V-15%) =24S, 26S, 28S

PC (65%Polyester & 35% cotton) = 24S, 26S, 28S, 30S

CVC = 24S, 26S, 28S, 30S

Circular Knitting Section:

This section contains 72 circular knitting machines. Circular knitting machines are of different types, made by different manufacturer and also have different specifications. In this section body fabric for knitted garments is produced. The different specifications of different machines are given one after another.

Circular Knitting Section

Flat Knitting Section:

Generally collar, cuff of knitted garments is produced in this section. In this section there are 25 flat knitting machines. all of them are same type and also have same specification. The specification of all machines is given below:

Type Automatic Flat knitting machine

Manufacturer name Precision Fukuhara Works Ltd.

Country Japan

Model No. \l-100

Gauge G14

Automatic Flat Bed m/c










Category of Weft or Circular Knitting:

  1. Single jersey.
  2. Double jersey – I. Rib.

II. Interlock.

Single jersey:

It requires only one set of needles. The loops are intermesh in only one direction so the appearance of the face and back of the fabric are quite different.

Example: Plain single jersey, Pique, lacoste etc.


It requires two sets of needles positioned at right angles to each other to form the fabric.

Example: (1×1) Rib,(2×2) Rib etc.


Fabric is produced by using both long and short needles. It has a smooth surface on both sides.

Example: Plain Interlock.

Sequence of yarn feeding:



Pipe line




Yarn sensor


Yarn guide





Terms of Knitting:


Horizontal row of loops produced by adjacent needles in knitting cycle is called the

Course of the fabric.


Vertical column of loops produced by same needle in knitting cycle is called the Wales of the fabric.

Face loop:

If the legs of new loop is passes over the old loop is called face loop.

Back loop:

If the legs of new loop is passes under the old loop is called face loop

Stitch density: It is expressed as,

Course per inch × Wales per inch.

Stitch length: Length of one loop in the course direction express in mm.

Number of needle: Machine diameter × Machine gauge × 3.1416.

Gauge: Number of needle per inch.

GSM: The weight of one square meter of fabric express in gram is known as GSM.


There are three types of needle-

  1. Bearded needle
  2. Compound needle
  3. Latch needle-

a. One butt needle.

b. Two butt needle.

c. Three butt needle.

d. Four butt needle.

The most widely used needle is latch needle.


Cam is called the specific path of the needles to produce a specific type of fabric.

There are three types of cam used in circular knitting machine

  1. Knit Cam.
  2. Tuck Cam.
  3. Miss Cam.

Knit Cam:

It moves the needle upward enough to clear the old loop and receive the new yarn.

Tuck Cam:

It moves the needle upward not enough to clear.The old loop but receive the new yarn.

Miss cam:

It does not moves the needle upward. The needles,neither clears the old loop nor receive the new yarn.


It is a thin metal plate with an individual or collective operation approximately at right angles at the hook side between adjacent needles.

Function of sinker:

In circular knitting m/c sinker helps to form the loop by holding down the yarn.

Parameters of knitting:

There are some parameters of machine, yarn and fabric that determine the production of a particular type of fabric.

Machine parameters:

  1. Diameter of m/c: It measures the diameter of the fabric.
  2. No. of feeders: It indicates how much yarn feed in the m/c.
  3. No. of needles: The fineness of stitch depends on it.
  4. M/c speed: Rate of production depends on m/c speed.
  5. Efficiency: It means how much the m/c works according to its capacity.
  6. Efficiency: It means how much the m/c works according to its capacity.
  7. Efficiency: It means how much the m/c works according to its capacity.

Yarn and fabric parameters:

  1. Yarn count: The GSM of the fabric or fineness / coarseness of the fabric depend on it.
  2. Stitch length: The stitch length of the fabric is inversely proportional to the GSM of the fabric.

Stitch length ?GSM ?.

Stitch length ?GSM ?.

3. Stitch density: It indicates the no. of coarse and no. of wale per inch of the


Selection of knitting machine:

The machine is selected on the basis of the design and diameter of the fabric that have to be constructed.

Selection of yarn:

The selection of yarn depends on the GSM of the fabric.

According to English cotton count system, low count yarn used to produce high GSM fabric and high count yarn used to produce low GSM fabric.

How to control fabric GSM and stitch length:

We know that there is an inverse relationship between stitch length and GSM and these issues are influenced by some factors like type of fabric, yarn count, fabric width, m/c diameter, gauge etc.

First yarn selected before production of any fabric. Then an effective stitch length is select to achieve the required fabric GSM. The stitch length can be changed by changing the direction of vdq pulley

How to control fabric width:

Fabric width depends on the diameter of the machine and the count of yarn.

Low count of yarn increases the width of the fabric.

High count of yarn decreases the width of the fabric.

Width of fabric can be calculated as-

No. of active needles/Wales per inch.

Sequence of knitted fabric production:

Yarn selection: First the yarn is selected to get the GSM according to the requirements of the buyer.

Requisition of yarn: Then yarn is supplied from the store or outside on the basis of requisition

Machine selection: M/c is selected according to the design and width of the fabric.

Sample making: Sample fabric is produce to check the GSM, stitch length and also to do. Various physical and chemical tests to make expected type of fabric

Make decision: The decision of further process is made by analyzing the characteristics of the sample fabric.

Bulk production: If the sample is approved then everything is arranged for bulk production.

Selection of yarn count:

Different type of yarn count is used in different fabric GSM.

There are two types of yarn count system-

  1. Direct system.
  2. Indirect system.

Direct system:

In direct system higher count indicates coarseness of yarn and lower count indicates fineness of yarn.

Example: Tex- No. of grams per 1000 meter.

Denier- No. of grams per 9000 meter

Indirect system:

In indirect system higher count indicates fineness of yarn and lower count indicates coarseness of yarn.

Example: English cotton count- No. of 840yd lengths per pound.

Woolen- No. of 256yd lengths/pound.


1 kilogram – 2.2046 pound.

1 Inch- 2.54 Cm.

1 Meter -1.0936 yard.

1 Cm- 0.3937 Inch.

1 Yard- 36 Inch.

Identification of weft kitted fabric:

M/C Layout Fabric Type Cam setting
Single Jersey S/J Stripe K K K K


Single Jersey Pique K K T T


Single Jersey Terry T K M



Rib Plain Rib KKKK (dial)


KKKK (cylinder)


Rib ( 2*1) Rib KKKK (dial)


KKKK (cylinder)


Flat Bed Knitting:


Mainly coarser fabrics like collar, cuff, bottom etc are made in flat bed machine.

Depends on the ply of yarn these products are named as six ply, five ply, three ply etc. Different types of collar can be made by this machine like solid, tripping, ambush etc.

Sequence of flat bed knitting:

Yarn from package













Knitting m/c given below:

Description Capacity Origin Qty Brand
20 Dia 1250 Taiwan 05 Unitex
23 Dia 1680 Taiwan 06 Unitex
21 Dia 2000 Taiwan 08 Unitex
22 Dia 2500 Taiwan 10 Unitex
24 Dia 255 Taiwan 01 Unitex
26 Dia 300 Taiwan 01 Unitex
28 Dia 300 Taiwan 01 Unitex
30 Dia 300 Taiwan 01 Unitex
36 Dia 300 Taiwan 01 Unitex
15 Dia 362 Taiwan 02 Unitex
16 Dia 510 Taiwan 03 Unitex
17 Dia 510 Taiwan 03 Unitex
40 Dia 600 Taiwan 02 Unitex
18 Dia 740 Taiwan 04 Unitex
19 Dia 975 Taiwan 05 Unitex


Machine Brand name: Hsing Cheng.

Origin: Taiwan.

Machine diameter: 30inch, 20inch.

Faults of knitted fabric:

During the processing of knitting different types of fault may occur. These faults are found during inspection.


Hole: Causes for foreign matter.

Barre: Causes by mixing different shade of yarn.

Yarn contra: Causes by hairy yarn.

Needle broken: Causes for the breakage of needle.

Lycra out: For the absence of lycra on the fabric.

Causes of inspection:

After knitting, all types of fabric are inspected to find out any type of fault that will hamper the proper quality of the fabric to the buyer. During inspection four points system is used to make the grade of the fabric depends on the fault. There are some points on each of the faults. The points are calculated in every hundred meters. If the total point for the fault exceeds the predetermined range then fabrics will be hold for further process.

Some point of faults are given below

Faults Points
Hole 04
Yarn contra 01
Lycra out 02 point/inch
Oil spot 01
Star 04


Hole Mark:


ü Holes are the results of yarn breakage or yarn cracks.

ü During loop formation the yarn breaks in the rejoin of the needle hook.

ü If the yarn count is not correct on regarding structure, gauge, course and density.

ü Badly knot or splicing.

ü Yarn feeder badly set.


ü Yarn strength must be sufficient to withstand the stretch as well as uniform.

ü Use proper count of yarn.

ü Correctly set of yarn feeder.

ü Knot should be given properly.

Needle Mark:


ü When a needle breaks down then needle mark comes along the fabrics.

ü If a needle or needle hook is slightly bends then needle mark comes on the fabrics.


ü Needle should be straight as well as from broken latch.

Sinker Mark:


ü When sinker corrode due to abrasion then some times can not hold a new loop as a result sinker mark comes.

ü If sinker head bend then sinker mark comes.


ü Sinker should be changed.



ü Yarn tension variation during production.

ü Buckling of the needle latch.

ü Low G.S.M fabric production.


ü Maintain same Yarn tension during production.

ü Use good conditioned needles.

Drop Stitches:


ü Defective needle.

ü If yarn is not properly fed during loop formation i.e. not properly laid on to the needle hook.

ü Take-down mechanism too loose.

ü Insufficient yarn tension.

ü Badly set yarn feeder.


ü Needle should be straight & well.

ü Proper feeding of yarn during loop formation.

ü Correct take up of the fabric & correct fabric tension.

ü Yarn tension should be properly.

Oil stain:


ü When oil lick through the needle trick then it pass on the fabrics and make a line.


ü Ensure that oil does not pass on the fabrics.

ü Well maintenance as well as proper oiling.

Rust stain:


ü If any rust on the machine parts.


ü If any rust on the machine parts then clean it.

ü Proper maintenance as well as proper oiling.

Pin hole:


ü Due to break down or bend of the latch, pin hole may come in the fabric.


ü Change the needle

Grease stain:


ü Improper greasing

ü Excess greasing


ü Proper greasing as well as proper maintenance

Cloth fall- out:


ü Cloth fall- out can occur after a drop stitch especially when an empty needle with an empty needle with closed latch runs into the yarn feeder and remove the yarn out of the hook of the following needles.


ü Make sure all the latches of needle are closed with feeding yarn after a drop stitch.


A fault in weft knitted fabric appearing as light or dark course wise (width wise) Stripe.


ü This fault comes from yarn fault.

ü If different micro near value of fiber content in yarn.

ü Different lusture, dye affinity of fiber content in yarn.

ü During spinning different similar classes of fiber is mixed specially in carded yarn & these fibers have similar characteristics.

ü In draw fame different similar classes sliver is mixed and make one sliver.


ü We can use this fabric in white color.

Fly dust:


ü In knitting section too much lint is flying to and fro that are created from yarn due to low twist as well as yarn friction. This lint may adhere or attaches to the fabric surface tightly during knit fabric production.


ü Blowing air for cleaning and different parts after a certain period of time.

ü By cleaning the floor continuously.

ü By using ducting system for cleaning too much lint in the floor.

ü Over all ensure that lint does not attach to the fabric.

Yarn contamination:


ü If yarn contains foreign fiber then it remains in the fabric even after finishing,

ü If lot, count mixing occurs.


By avoiding lot, count mixing.

ü Fault less spinning.

Yarn Faults:

ü Neps.

ü Slubs.

ü Yarn count variations.

ü Thick/Thin place in yarn.

ü Hairiness.

C. Batch section

Batch Preparation:

Batch preparation can be defined as a process where the visually Inspected greige fabric are divided into different batches. It is a part of dyeing process & it is done to feed the dyeing machines for fabric dyeing.

Loading Capacity:

In dyeing machines 1600 meters of fabric can be loaded in one nozzle through dyeing machines. Production are calculated by weight normally for fabric with higher GSM & large weight. Maximum load can be done while for fabric with less GSM & width .Minimum loading can be done considering the fabric quality. For the example recommended loading capacity of each machine is shown in the table-

Machine No. Capacity Usually loaded
01 450-600 550
02 450-600 550
3,4 450-600 550
5 35-75 45
6 175-275 200
7,8 450-600 550
9 190-240 300