National plan for Disaster Management Reviews
Plan- is the written form of thinking what ever to be done in course of time. In this context, national plan for disaster management is the written strategy to face the hazards in Bangladesh it occurs in future.
National plan for Disaster management is consisted of hazards in Bangladesh (which are- Flood cyclones and storm surges, Tornado , River Bank erosion earthquake , Drought Arsenic contamination, salinity intrusion Tsunami, Fire infrastructures collapse, landslide) Climate change, disaster Development linkage, methods of plan and Follow lip Financing of the plan and etc.
Bangladesh is a highly disaster prone county and to face this problem. Disaster plan has developed with the view of holistic approach- towards the disaster management. Director General of DMB concluded that the very Focus of the National plan for DM is to establish institutional accountability in preparing and implementing disaster management (DM) plans at different levels in the country. He was included that the plan has been prepared in a participatory way having several consultations with stakeholders and established a road map of effective partnership with the organizations working at local, national and regional levels. It is expected that this plan will contribute towards developing and strengthening regional
And national networks. From the citation of DG of DMB, we may draw attention that PPP will be used as a tool fun DM in Bangladesh.
Bangladesh has cultural and land diversity including highly vulnerable to natural hazards. Also we may cite from the DM plan the characteristics of Bangladesh diversities –
(1) A vast network of river channels.
(2) An enormous discharge of water heavily laden sediments.
(3) A large number of lands in between the channels.
(4) A shallow northern Bay of Bangle and funneling to the costal area of Bangladesh.
(5) Strong and tidal wind action.
Observation the plan:
Here in write down that natural hazards such as – Floods, river erosion , cyclones , droughts , tornadoes cold waves, earthquake, drainage congestion arsenic contamination, salinity intrusion and etc.
Floods – it may different types and patterns due to various causes. Such as Flash flood in eastern and northern Bangladesh. Rain floods caused by drainage congestion and heavy rains. Monsoon floods caused major river usually in the monsoon and finally coastal floods caused by storm surges here floods affected area is demarked with the time frame work but not result and what ever necessary initiative had taken on this period.
Cyclones and storm surges
Tropical cyclones from the Bay of Bangle accompanied by storm surges in Bangladesh. The cyclones are regular phenomena in our countryside.
Tornado – it is the pre monsoon period when most of the abnormal rainfall or a drought condition frequently occurs in different parts of Bangladesh. Tornado is which that the winds become having a speed of several hundred kilo meters per hour. It can cause a lot of havoc and destruction.
River bank erosion- this is an on going disaster and there is no specific indicator to measure the extent of damage. So the extent of damage caused by River erosion in Bangladesh is periodic phenomena and less dangerous than other natural hazards.
After reviewing the happened large earthquakes during the last 200 years. We may summarize that Bangladesh and the north eastern in Indian states have long been one of the seismically active regions of the world. Bangladesh in the often occurs that in low intense. The DBD has been classified into there seismic zones with zone – 3 the most and zone -1 the least vulnerable to seismic risks .How many times and when that occurred in this undivided bangle which are recorder in this plan with intense.
Bangladesh faces unpredictable drought hazard in the dry monsoon due to inadequate and uneven rainfall. It varies from place to place, how ever and the north western region suffers most from the drought .Drought affects on environment most as a whole. It losses the environ most system and interrupt the Development. To combat the drought it is essential for Bangladesh to utilize it water resources both surface and ground water Drought is an abnormal condition where there is lack of sufficient water to most the normal needs of agriculture, `live stock industry of fur human use.
Drought is result of insufficient or on rainfall for an extended period and Causes a considerable hydrological (water) imbalance. Basically, there are there types of droughts in Bangladesh – which are –
(1) permanent drought
(2) Seasonal drought
(3) unpredictable drought
Arsenic- Arsenic contamination is considered as dangerous environmental threat and a serious health emergency in Bangladesh there is no specific treatment for chronic arsenicious other then ceasing further in take of arsenic contaminated water.
10 mg / liter is acceptable to Drinking water in most countries including Bangladesh. But it varies from region to another in Bangladesh and Arsenic contamination is more then acceptable. Government initiatives to mitigate risks to Arsenic contamination and implementing plan for Arsenic mitigation in Bangladesh.
Under water strong earthquake volcanic eruption of other submarine land slide usually causes to tsunamis. A tsunamis consists of a series of waves can run it can occurs at any time day or night Geological survey of Bangladesh has divided the Bangladesh coastal belt into three zones-
(a) Tsunami vulnerable zone- i (Teknaf chittagong coastline)
(b) Tsunami vulnerable zone- ii (Sundarban- Barisal coastline)
(c) Tsunami vulnerable zone- iii (Barisal sandwaip estuarine coastline)
Fire hazards occur frequently in Bangladesh. Fire occurs huge loss of lives and properties every year Factory fires are all too common in Bangladesh.
Infra structure collapse – incidents of infrastructure collapse are a rise. Prevention and preparedness programmes are absolute necessary at the time.
Large and small land slides occurs almost every year in nearly all regions of the world .landslides are a complex disaster phenomena that can be caused by earthquake ,volcanic eruptions heavily rainfall and etc.
Global Climate change and IPCC Reports on Bangladesh – The IPCC working group has reported in their Fourth assessment the production of rice and wheal might drop in Bangladesh .According to the report, human made emissions of greenhouse gaze can be blamed for the harmful effects.
Climate change: Observed in Bangladesh, We may say easily that impacts of climate changes are visible iv Bangladesh in the from of temperature extremes, erratic rainfall and increased, number of intensified floods cyclones, droughts prevalence of rough weather in the Bay The coastal zone of Bangladesh hosts over 35 million of people who are exposed to cyclones, storm surges, roughs seas, salinity intrusion and permanent inundation due to sea level rising.
Future climate change Scenarios for Bangladesh:
The changes in the climatic parameters as observed will continue. Down scaling the global climatic Scenarios using climate model PRECIS for Bangladesh.
Disaster Risks reduction with climate change adaptation offers a win – win opportunity : Climate system is fundamental for both issues 75% of all disasters originate from weather climate extremes Disasters risks reduction offers opportunities to current climate variability and climate extremes in this respect disaster risks reduction can promote early a adaptation to climate risks and impacts.
Bangladesh climate change strategy and action plan (2009) – rightly weighted and linkage of the climate change and disaster potentials and appropriately taken disaster management as one of the pillar of strategy which one health comprehensive disaster management ,infrastructure Research and knowledge management mitigation and low carbon development and capacity building and instructional strengthening.
Disaster Development linkage: National and international Drives furs change; following drives are linkage to Disaster —–
(1) Millennium Development Goals. There consist of eight goals
(2) Poverty Reduction strategy paper (PRSP) Bangladesh – poverty disaster interface in Bangladesh is quality perplexing the poor are more vulnerable to any king of disaster due to depletion of assets in come erosion due to low of employment increased indebted news and out mitigation . The World Bank and the IMF Financing it is the basis for concessional lending from IMF and the WB for the low income countries and debt relief under WB-IMF heavily indebted poor countries initiatives.
Now PRSP is not active and government taken the 5th year plan in lieu of PRSP. In this chapter, we kind out some recommendations which are based an experienced. Here we found some recommendation from the Hyogo- Framework for action (HFA) those are not applicable due to consideration of time place and environ mental situation.
Natural disaster of Japan and Bangladesh are not same .So priorities of action we may reject except a little bit.
We Found SAARC Frame work for action (SFA- 2006-2015) – that was the heads of states or government in the 13th Dhaka summit celled for elaboration of a comprehensive framework on Early working and Disaster management strategic Goals of the frame woke include the following
(1) professionalizing the disaster risks system
(2) Main streaming disaster risks reduction
(3) Strengthening of community institutional mechanisms
(4) Empowering community at risk particular woman the poor and the disadvantaged
(5) Expanding risks reduction programming across a broader range of hazards.
(6) Strengthening emergency response systems and
(7) Developing and strengthening networks of relevant national regional and international organizations.
The SFA – 1dentifies the following the priority areas for action
(1) Develop and implement risk reduction strategies.
(2) Establish Regional and National Response mechanisms
(3) Establish a regional information sharing mechanism and Develop networks of intuitions and organizations.
(4) Develop and implement disaster management training education research and awareness programmes
(5) Apply the ICT for disaster management
(6) Establish an effective monitoring and evaluation mechanism.
The SFA also emphasis to the following components those are —-
(1) Strategic goals and different stakeholders will get priorities
(2) All organi3atians and members will integrate to reduce the risks
(3) Civil society volunteer’s community based organizations privet sectors are vital stakeholders in supporting the implementation of disaster reductions at all levers.
(4) Holistic approach and maintaining the programmes consistency.
(5) Member countries shall develop their own plan of action for implementation of this framework.
Considered the all types of level components as civil society, stakeholders, NGO & GO and other important components which can reduce the disasters risks at owns respective level.
To mitigate the climate change Bangladesh government taken necessary initiatives upon the following thematic areas over the next 20-25 years
(1) Food security social protection and health.
(2) Comprehensive disaster management
(3) Intra structure
(4) Research and knowledge management.
(5) Mitigation and low carbon development
(6) Capacity building and institutional strengthening
Programmes funded under action plan will be implemented by line ministries and agencies . A national steering committee an climate change chaired by the state minister of Environment and forest. A climate ministry to support the climate change mitigation. It will work with climate change cells in all ministries.
Methods of plan Development:
After the approval of the SFA at the SAARC council then the Draft national plan will be placed before a wider group comprising government and nongovernmental organizations and academic intuitions with the feed back from the wider group the draft national plan version should be prepared and submitted to the DM & RD. which circulated it for comments from relevant and suggestions from relevant ministries and departments for considerations of the cabinet in this context we premises that participants observation and comments to be included to forming the plan which have objectives core principles and strategic goals of the plan.
Main streaming Risk Reduction- the strategies:
(See pg -4D)-fig -15
We observe the figure that Advocacy and Awareness’ Raising programmes will run on National and District level. In this level policy and planning to be referred in Upozilla level. Risks Reduction planning to be formulated and also in this level capacity building programmes collaborative partnerships level. Community Rise Assessments (ERA) to be implemented in Community level. I think it is the Top to bottom policy but it was appropriate if it occurred Bottom to Top policy maintain.
Disaster Management systems in Bangladesh:
Disaster Management system in Bangladesh is two bevels one is National level and another level consists of-inter ministries departments bureau and other on the is involved district administration Upozilla administration union porished and city Corporation and municipalities are inter connected to implement the National disaster plan in Bangladesh
We may draw criticize that this plan is good for human and collaboration with GO and NGOs to face the Natural Hazards in Bangladesh. Clearly we get notion after studying the National Disaster Plan that it will be implemented through PPP model. But we didn’t get directly any instruction how to way PPP will be lead to implement this plan Act ivies on implementation.
Fund disbursement systems work allotment – all are followed by PPP model.
Before formulation the plan one workshop was arranged to get sharing the views but i think it is not enough moreover grassroots people were not participant. But in my view they are important to share ring views who are most affected and gathered experience from the reality existence opaquely . I clearly mention to micro level policy forming tools was not used in this plan that was formulated by armchair officers who arte less important than the grassroots people.
In this plan health hazards ignored and how to face. It we did not get any instructions from it. Natural hazards are unexpected and unwanted and occur those often. So we should emphases more to prevention programs and how to survive after Natural disaster another we may say capacity building in root level is most important to minimize the losses of disaster.