our deepest sense of gratitude, heart-felt thanks and sincere appreciation and greatest indebtedness.

view with charts and images

This is a great pleasure of having the opportunity of expressing our deepest sense of gratitude, heart-felt thanks and sincere appreciation and greatest indebtedness.


We have to observe things with our keen-eyes. We try to notice small to smallest things in any kind of things that we are interested in, so that we make the work more effective and informative. Our sights are our main force to win any battle. So we choose this as our group name.


“Clear sign of victory” we believe that, if we are fined and clear about something, then victory is compelled to come to us. Our aim is not to win only nether our aim is to make the impossible things possible and do our bests to find out the best.


All praise and utmost prayers to be almighty who is the source of all power and knowledge, More thanks to is almighty Allah for giving us to start our research work continuously despite we have personal troubles and hazards each.

It is a great pleasure of having the opportunity of expressing our deepest sense of gratitude, heart-felt thanks and sincere appreciation and greatest indebtedness to ours reverend teacher also grateful to all respectable teachers particularly most grateful to our group members who have shown their stunning performance individually to do this assignment. Group leader helps to divide the total assignment separately that’s why everyone can participate in here. Each and everyone shown their best charisma to find out the best things that it matches our group name Lynx- eyed. All in all, we are tremendously happy on our group members that by keeping far seeing on every aspect prove that we are best one.


In general sense of view Design means, to think something creatively and solve any problem effectively.

On the other hand, if we explain design elaborately than we find design are:

The realization of an inventive or decorative plan; especially a work of decorative art considered as a new creation; conception or plan shown in completed work; as, this carved panel is a fine design, or of a fine design.

A plan or scheme formed in the mind of something to be done; preliminary conception; idea intended to be expressed in a visible form or carried into action; intention; purpose; — often used in a bad sense for evil intention or purpose; scheme; plot.

Specifically, intention or purpose as revealed or inferred from the adaptation of means to an end; as, the argument from design.

A preliminary sketch, an outline or pattern of the main features of something to be executed, as of a picture, a building, or a decoration, delineation a plan.

If we elaborate the word “Design” in such way that,

D- Determination

E- Enthusiasm

S- Sensitivity

I- Imagination/Innovation

G- Generosity

N- Negotiation

So, elaborately design refers, to make something difference based on imagination with strong determination by thinking how to order the parts, how to serve the clients interest by negotiation and how to convey the information.

Design also responsible to arrest the attention and engage the emotion of a viewer

About design famous designer Beatrice Warde said, “The goblet of design must become transparent allowing viewer to gather the intended information, rather than to be absorbed by the designer’s layout.”

So over all we can say, design graces our likes with the aesthetic presentation of useful and beneficial thinkers.


Design seeks to discover and assess structural, organizational, functional, expressive and economic relationships, with the task of:

  • Enhancing global sustainability and environmental protection (global ethics)
  • Giving benefits and freedom to the entire human community, individual and collective
  • Final users, producers and market protagonists (social ethics)
  • Supporting cultural diversity despite the globalization of the world (cultural ethics)
  • Giving products, services and systems, those forms that are expressive of (sociology) and coherent with (aesthetics) their proper complexity.

Typical stages of the design process include

  • Pre-production design
  • Design during production
    • Development – continuation and improvement of a designed solution
    • Testing –testing a designed solution
  • Post-production design feedback for future designs
  • Redesign – any or all stages in the design process repeated (with corrections made) at any time before, during, or after production.

These stages are not universally accepted but do relate typical design process activities. For each activity there are many best practices for completing them.

Philosophies and studies of design:

There are countless philosophies for guiding design as the design values and its accompanying aspects within modern design vary, both between different schools of thought and among practicing designers.<href=”#cite_note-7″>[8] Design philosophies are usually for determining design goals. A design goal may range from solving the least significant individual problem of the smallest element, to the most holistic influential utopian goals. Design goals are usually for guiding design. However, conflicts over immediate and minor goals may lead to questioning the purpose of design, perhaps to set better long term or ultimate goals.

Approaches to design:

A design approach is a general philosophy that may or may not include a guide for specific methods. Some are to guide the overall goal of the design. Other approaches are to guide the tendencies of the designer. A combination of approaches may be used if they don’t conflict.

Some popular approaches include:

  • KISS principle, (Keep it Simple Stupid, etc.), which strives to eliminate unnecessary complications.
  • There is more than one way to do it (TIMTOWTDI), a philosophy to allow multiple methods of doing the same thing.
  • Use-centered design, which focuses on the goals and tasks associated with the use of the artifact, rather than focusing on the end user.
  • User-centered design, which focuses on the needs, wants, and limitations of the end user of the designed artifact.

Method of designing

Design Methods is a broad area that focuses on:

  • Exploring possibilities and constraints by focusing critical thinking skills to research and define problem spaces for existing products or services—or the creation of new categories; (see also Brainstorming)
  • Redefining the specifications of design solutions which can lead to better guidelines for traditional design activities (graphic, industrial, architectural, etc.);
  • Managing the process of exploring, defining, creating artifacts continually over time
  • Prototyping possible scenarios, or solutions that incrementally or significantly improve the inherited situation
  • Trendspotting; understanding the trend process.

Industrial design

Industrial design is a combination of applied art and applied science, whereby the aesthetics and usability of mass-produced products may be improved for marketability and production. The role of an Industrial Designer is to create and execute design solutions towards problems of form, usability, user ergonomics, engineering, marketing, brand development and sales.

The term “industrial design” is often attributed to the designer Joseph Claude Since in 1919 (although he himself denied it in later interviews) but the discipline predates that by at least a decade. Its origins lay in the industrialization of consumer products. For instance the Detacher Deskbound, founded in 1907 and a precursor to the Bauhaus, was a state-sponsored effort to integrate traditional crafts and industrial mass-production techniques, to put Germany on a competitive footing with England and the United States.

Definition of Industrial Design:

General Industrial Designers are a cross between an engineer and an artist. They study both function and form, and the connection between product and the user. They do not design the gears or motors that make machines move, or the circuits that control the movement, but they can affect technical aspects through usability design and form relationships. And usually, they partner with engineers and marketers, to identify and fulfill needs, wants and expectations.

Definition of sketch:

For the production of the knit garments or woven garments a sketch of a particular garment including its design features is essential to produce on paper so that after manufacturing of that garment could be verified or checked whether it looks like the sketch or not design/sketch of the garments could be the manually or with the help of computer.

The ability to quickly record impressions through sketching has found varied purposes in today’s culture. Courtroom artists are usually sketchers. Sketches drawn to help authorities find or identify wanted people are called composite sketches. Street performers in popular tourist areas often include artists who sketch portraits within minutes.

A sketch method of reproducing photographs is done with a photographic enlarger in a dark room. The negative image is projected on the paper where the sketch is to be done. All the light shades are penciled until the paper is all the same shade.

Media of sketch:

Dry media such as pencil or pastel are often preferred due to time constraints, but a quickly done watercolor study or even quickly modeled clay or soft wax can also be considered a ‘sketch’ in the broader sense of the term. Graphite pencils being a relatively new invention, the artists of the Renaissance could make sketches using the expensive method of a silver stylus on specially prepared paper (known as silverpoint), with results similar to a modern pencil sketch, or, more cheaply, using charcoal, chalk, or pen-and-ink.

Contrary to popular belief, artists often use erasers when drawing; the eraser may be used to remove rough construction lines, or to soften lines for visual effect. The most commonly used eraser for pencil drawing is the kneaded eraser, which has a soft, sticky surface that enables the artist to lift the graphite or charcoal from the drawing surface without smudging. White plastic erasers can cleanly erase line work, but tend to smudge heavy shading

Fashion Sketch

Fashion Illustration or sketching is the communication of fashion that originates with illustration, drawing and painting. It is usually commissioned for reproduction in fashion magazines as one part of an editorial feature or for the purpose of advertising and promoting fashion makers, fashion boutiques and department stores.

Fashion Illustration is the communication of fashion designs through drawing. The main focus is the fashion figure or croquets used for draping the clothing onto. The true female figure measures seven to eight head lengths in height; the fashion figure measures nine to ten head lengths. In fashion drawing the basic proportions of the human form from head to crotch are retained, while extra length is added to the legs to give dramatic stylized effect and give the illustrator’s designs more dynamic appeal. The body should be drawn long and slim with squared off shoulders and very unrealistically elongated legs. The body looks extremely out of proportion, as the legs tend to be exaggeratedly long. The waist must draw very slender.

Fg: Garments illustration

Technical sketch:

Technical Drawings and Sketches Introduction the entire world depends upon technical drawings to convey the ideas that feed today’s industrialized society. Architectural, structural, electric, electronic, machine, plumbing, and piping drawings are all forms of mechanical/technical drawings. When rendering technical drawings, accuracy, neatness, technique, and speed in execution are essential. Inaccurate drawings could be worthless or lead to costly errors. Technical drawing is a necessarily broad term that applies to any drawing used drawings and to express technical ideas. Technical drawings are usually mechanically sketches refined by using straightedges, triangles, and drafting instruments. Many of these drawings begin as a form of sketching. Technical sketching is a freehand sketch. The only equipment required to execute technical sketches are soft pencils in the F to HB range, paper, and an eraser. The novice sketcher may find paper that is cross sectioned with ruled lines beneficial in establishing and maintaining scale. There are gridded papers, isometric papers for isometric sketches, and perspective papers for sketches requiring perspective available. When selecting an eraser, chose a soft (pink) or art gum eraser. Types of sketches since technical sketches and drawings represent three-dimensional objects, your sketches should conform to one of the four standard types of projection.

The four major types of projection are (1) multiview, (2) axonometric, (3) oblique, and (4) perspective.

Definition of Pattern:

In apparel manufacturing, the individual components of a garment are made by hard copy, drawing paper or board paper, which shape and size is same as individual parts of that garments is called pattern.

A pattern, from the French patron, is a type of theme of recurring events of or objects, sometimes referred to as elements of a set. These elements repeat in a predictable manner. …

Pattern in architecture is the idea of capturing architectural design ideas as archetypal and reusable descriptions. The term “pattern” is usually attributed to Christopher Alexander, an Austrian born American architect. The patterns serve as an aid to design cities and buildings. The concept of having collections of “patterns”, or typical samples as such is much older. One can think of these collections as forming a pattern language, whereas the elements of this language may be combined, governed by certain rules.

Definition of pattern design:

Hard paper copy of the each component of the garment of exact dimension of each component is called pattern. The pattern’s also includes seem allowance, trimmings allowance, dirts, pleats, ease allowance any especial design etc. Affairs patterns design could also be done manually or with the help of computer.

Tools and Equipment for Making Patterns:

Working Surface:

A flat working surface is required. However, a tracing wheel will mark any polished or laminated top therefore some protection must be given to this type of surface.

Strong brown paper is used for patterns. Parchment or thin card should be used for blocks that are used frequently.

Use hard pencils for drafting patterns (2H). Colored pencils are useful for outlining complicated areas.

Fiber pens:

These are required for writing clear instructions on patterns.

Set Square:

A large setsquare with a 45° angle is very useful; metric-grading squares can be obtained.

Use separate shears for cutting cloth and paper, as cutting paper will blunt the blades. These are essential for students to record pattern blocks and adaptation in their notebooks.

Tailor chalk

This is used for marking out the final pattern onto the cloth and for marking alternations on the garment when it is being fitted.

Toile fabrics:

Calico is used for marking toiles for designs in woven fabrics. Marks sure the weight of the calico is as close to the weight of the cloth as possible. Knitted fabric must be used for making toile’s for designs in jersey fabrics; the toile fabric should have the same stretch quality.

Metric Square:

This does not have to be the more expensive graduated tailor’s square based on a chest scale. The system in this book is based on a range of standard body measurements so the graduated square is of limited use.

The calculator is now a common tool in all areas of skill; it eliminates the hard work of calculating proportions and is accurate. If a calculator is not available use the table of aliquot parts

French curves:

Plastic shapes and curves are available in a range of sizes; they are useful for drawing good curves. A flexi curve, which allows a shape to be manipulated, is also available.

Pattern weights:

These keep pieces of pattern in position on paper or cloth

Pattern notched:

This is a tool, which marks balance points by snipping out a section of pattern paper.

Pattern Punch, Pattern Hooks ,Model Stands ,Computer Equipment,Stanley Knife, Metric Tape Measure ,Tracing Wheel ,Sell tape ,Pins ,Stanley Knife ,Rubber, Metric Ruler, Curved Rules, Meter Stick etc

Point to note when pattern cutting:

1. When measuring curves use the tape measure on its edge.

2. Accurate, clear lines are essential, and these can only be achieved

With the use of hard sharp pencils; sharpened with a pencil

Sharpener, not a knife. Sketchy lines have no place in pattern


3. Notches are almost always marked at 90 degree to the seam line on which they are placed.

4. The two sides of a dart must always be identical in length.

5. Grain lines are marked parallel to the CF or CB except in a few cases, for instance a flared panel in a skirt would have the grain line marked through its centre as in a sleeve.

6. Calico is available in varying weights and qualities, so whenever possible use the type most similar to the fabric chosen for your garment to test your pattern.

7. If the pattern is to be used on a fabric with a nap, i.e. corduroy, mark grain line in normal position but have the ‘arrows’ facing in one direction- usually upwards.

Pattern making faults:

1. Garment measurement out of tolerance

2. Incorrect grading

3. Some parts not matching size of other parts

4. Sometimes notch marks are not mentioned due to carelessness.

5. Sometimes grain line is not provided.

6. Seam allowance and other information are missing from the pattern.

Kinds of Pattern: Usually we know that there are two kinds of pattern. Those are:

  • Basic Block/ Block Pattern
  • Working/Production Pattern

Basic block/Block pattern:

A block is a foundation pattern that reflects the size, shape and posture of the human figure without the inclusion of style teachers. It is constructed according to the measurements for the central base size of a size range or an individual person. A copy of the block in adapted to create a garment style. It in advisable to always retain a copy of the block pattern for future use. A newly constructed block has to be tested by making it into a garment. Thin garment in either titled on the individual customer, or for wholesale production, on a sample of women who represent the potential customer. If necessary the pattern has to be revisal as measurements alone do not reflect the total body shape.


The advantages of designing patterns within a computer program are that the blocks can include all the grading for other sizes. This means that when a new style in created the other sizes is automatically graded. Consequently pattern construction and pattern grading are completed in one operation. In this section the principals and techniques of constructing block pattern are explained. There are several methods that can be applied to computer use. One method is drafting a block pattern using the measurements from a size chart. These drafts can be either constructed directly using a computer system, or manually and then the pattern shapes digitized for those skilled in modeling or draping on a workroom stand a block can be created by this method and then digitized.

Fg: Pattern design

Working/production pattern:

Usually we know that working/production pattern is a pattern which required for a balk production. This pattern approved by the buyer and making couple of copy for production.

Pattern that’s why required:

Pattern is required especially in the garments industries. Because in the garment industries need to produce a bulk amount of garments. To make each garments hundred percent perfection pattern is required. At the same time if a pattern is used of different grade it needs to be fitted for specific dummy. To do so pattern also required.

Available at pattern:

In a pattern there are couple of instruments are needed. Those are Notch, Grain Line, Parts name; it means Back part or Front part, Size, Cut 2 or 1 etc

Pattern Sketch from buyer

Grain line:

Grain, or grain line, refers to the orientation of the yarns in woven fabric. The warp yarns run from back to front in the weaving loom and form the lengthwise grain—often called the straight grain. The weft yarns are woven from side to side into the warp yarns and form the crosswise grain, or cross grain. The lengthwise and crosswise grains are perpendicular to one another in the loom. The bias falls along any angle to the lengthwise or crosswise grain, (see the drawing below) and the true bias is at a 45-degree angle to the straight grain. Nonwoven fabrics, such as felts, have no grain.

On wovenfabric the grain line is the warp the long wise thread which is stretched on the loom, the long wise direction a fabric. The wefts are the threads woven across the warp. If grain line not given when fabric stitching fabric will be shrinkage or few stitching problem the grain line or arrow must be parallel to the selvage (woven of the fabric).


Small triangles on the outer edge of the pattern cut line are notices for matching pattern pieces.

Advantages of Grain line & notch:

The advantages of Grain line & Notch are too much required. Grain line helps to set the pattern warp & weft way on the fabric. At the same time Notch helps to know from where stitch will start and pattern matching.

Problems of without grain line & notch:

Absence of Grain Line & Notch may cause lot’s of problem both fabric cutter and worker who stitches. Without Grain Line it becomes difficult for fabric cutter to cut the fabric in right way that is warp or weft direction. On the contrary absence of notch worker cannot understand from where stitch should be start and where it would be finished.

Sewing allowance:

Seam allowance is the area between the edge and the stitching line on two (or more) pieces of material being stitched together. Seam allowances can range from 1/4 inch wide (6.35 mm) to as much as several inch. Commercial patterns for home sewers have seam allowances ranging from 1/4 inch to 5/8 inch.

Sewing industry seam allowances range from 1/4 inch for curved areas (e.g. neck line, armscye) or hidden seams (e.g. facing seams), to one inch or more for areas that require extra fabric for final fitting to the wearer (e.g. center back).

Manual & computer pattern making:

In the Age of Computers and Technology why would we went to learn manual Pattern Making? Well for one thing it’s a good skill to be able to do it manually and not rely on computers and software for making a pattern. We get a better fit an you can actually be proud to have done it yourself. A Pattern Maker in the true sense of the term is not a pattern maker if we relies on software for making patterns and is unable to produce a pattern without this aid. It’s also an important skill to have for altering patterns purchased from commercial pattern companies and important if we are a dressmaker and designer. Computer pattern making technology can be a bonus in the manufacturing industry particularly when it produces the same type of design over and over again. It speeds up the process of production saving the companies time and money.

Personally we’ve not really done any computer pattern making nor does it really interest me. We think that as a Pattern Maker it is important to be able to draft a pattern from scratch using measurements. We have better control over fit and proportions and appreciate the art and skill of pattern making

Pattern and tool making:

The Pattern and Tool Making department compliments the design capabilities of the Casting Design Centre and has the capability of fast and accurate pattern and tool manufacture using Traditional techniques or CNC manufacture. Skilled Patternmakers have been trained in the use of DELCAM’s Power Mill and adopt parallel tool path generation and machining techniques in order to speed up CNC pattern and tool production. ProEngineer, Catia, Power Shape, Ideas solid modeling software can be used for one-off or small batch prototype casting production.

Sample making:

There are many reasons for making a sample garment, and although it can be a tiresome and often boring process, it gives one a finished pattern that is adapted to one and can be used for endless amounts of finished garments.

The fabric that makes a sample garment out of will be dependent on what he wants to make his finished garment in. There is no point making a sample skirt out of stretch fabric if he intends to have the finished skirt in no stretch fabric. It is just a waste of time.

Fg: Sample making

Sample garments give one a chance to see how the finished garment will fit you. Is it the right size? Is it the right length? Is there any changes one need to make? Consider the fabric that will make the finished garment in. Will it be a thick double layer jacket? Then he’ll need to make the sample a little larger to accommodate this. It is wise to make the sample out of the cheapest fabric he can find. Go to you local fabric store and look at their end of roll stuff, their cheap and discount stuff, their sale stuff. It doesn’t need to be fancy, look for unbleached cotton or calico, and stretch T-shirt fabric. (For users in Sweden, IKEA sells unbleached cotton on the roll for 20 kronor per meter, almost unbeatable, and perfect for this) You can also use old cotton sheets.Look for something white or pale. Then he can use a marker or text pen and mark his changes directly on the fabric, so he know where it need to fix things when one take the sample off.

Fg: Sample making

When cutting and sewing his sample, it doesn’t need to be perfectly finished. Don’t worry about fixing hems or pockets. But it will need to use zips when making a sample for pants and skirts with zips in. Mark out the places where he wants to have pockets and buttons while they are wearing the sample. If he need to change the position of a zip or something mark theses changes too. Make sure he checks you in a mirror, not just by looking down at his self. Sit in his normal position. Make sure, if he intends to wear a special bra or underwear under a particular garment, that he also wear these while testing the sample.

When they have finished testing, he can un-pick the sample and make the changes he needs to make. Then either make the changes on their paper pattern, or if the changes are extensive, cut a new paper pattern. They can also use the un-picked fabric sample as a pattern for their finished garment.

Sometimes they will need to make several samples before finding the solution that suits them and fits they best.

Hang in there; it will all be worth it in the end when they have their perfect pattern!

To develop the sample there are six steps which are given below:

Proto Sample

Size Set Sample

Pre- Production Sample

Production Sample

Conformity Sample

Shipping Sample

Proto Sample:

PDS Pattern Design System and 3D Draping for getting the right fit the first time –faster.

Asset management – no more storing of paper patterns – instant retrieval for modification, amendments etc. To see your product quality buyer wants it and if buyer satisfy with its quality then buyer want salesman samples.

Fg: Proto sample

Proto sample is the initial sample made by the manufacturer as per as the details of the export order, and send to the buyer, to check weather the styling of the garment is ok as per the requirement of the buyer. Proto Sample can be made in alternative fabric & accessories, which is not with the original fabric and accessories. That is as per the sketch & space in the production order (P.O) sheet).

Proto Sample:

The manufacturing must produce sample prior to communication of the mass scale production of a particular style. The number of samples required, vary from buyer to buyer. Most of the time buyers ask for 3-5 samples from the manufacturer. When constructing these samples the manufacture’s instruction should be followed.

The original patterns, original sample & the specification are required to produce these samples. After constructing these samples manufacturer should send them to the buyer or to the agents to get the approval for the mass production. There are two main types of approval samples and they are known as:

– Fit approval samples

– Size series samples.

When an order is placed and confirmed, the manufacturer has to produce samples for the buyer. The required size of the samples is generally given by the buyer. If the size of samples is not given the middle size of the order range is taken as the appropriate size. That is if an order is given for a range of sizes, then the sample garment is made from the middle size. The samples produce for the given size or the middle sizes of the order are known as fit approval samples.

Once fit approval samples are approved by the buyers, request for samples in all the sizes of the order before the mass production starts. Then they are in a position to see the quality of the samples of all size of the order. These samples are known as size series samples. Even if there is no such request from the buyer, it is batter to produce to size series samples for use within the factory. Then they can identify the problem that might occur, when they produce different size in the mass production.

Size Set Sample:

The Samples before a mass production is carried on to ensure whether the fit and size is been obtained. Manufacturer produces different size from an order, style and color and gets them approved from revenant customer.

Size set sample contains all the size of the export order contains sizes small, medium, large size. Then the size set is sample will contain all the size, the sample S are made by grading the M size sample. Alternative fabric & accessories can make this Sample.

Fg: size set sample

Pre-production Samples All Size & All color & all actual fabric Materials. If Buyer approved than go for production Sample. Before Production Sample to call The PP Meeting.

  • Production Gm
  • Production Manager
  • Consult Merchandisers

Manufacturer produces samples before the production of the order when carried out. A Pilot run is been made to ensure that the quality, Fit, Size of the garment is be obtained in mass production.

original fabric & Accessories make PP Sample, and this sample is made just before the Bulk production. This sample represents the original garment to be made in Bulk production. The buyer checks the PP samples & after the Buyer gives approval on PP sample, and then only the manufacture goes for bulk production of the export order. PP sample should include all the colors of the style.

MUST meet the following requirements:

• Correct styling

• Correct bulk fabric

• Correct all accessories

• Correct required measurements

• Correct beading / embroidery

• Correct wash / hand-feel

Relevant sections on GAF sheet must be filled out and signed off as correct by supplier’s QA technician

Pre-Production sample:

In this meeting everybody concerned with the style sits together to make sure that everybody is on the same page and understands the product. Hence, this meeting has the merchandiser, production in-charge, cutting, finishing, fabric in-charge, line supervisor, pattern master, sample master etc. All tentative problems are discussed and solutions sought to execute the order smoothly.

Fg: pre-production sample

For example – in case a fabric is only approved for the design and not for the colors, the merchandiser should mention “approved for design only, not approved for color”

– Further, reasons for color not being approved should be clearly mentioned.

– Also the next steps to be taken should be mentioned there and then or the corrective steps required should be mentioned.

Following example – the next statement should be – “please re-submit for color approval”

– Next the merchandiser should also lay down the timeline for the next submission; meaning to say the next date of submission should be advised there and then to avoid any confusion.

– Once the approval is granted, the same should be conveyed to all concerned parties or departments. For example: a fabric approval should be conveyed to fabric stores, Inspection team and production team. Not only the communication should be my means of e-mail etc, but a fabric swatch signed by the merchandiser should be sent to these departments so that they are aware of the approval and can always refer to the same in case of a doubt. Similarly for a sample, a counter sample should always be available with the production (sewing, finishing & packing) departments and the Quality Control department.

– The merchandiser for future reviews and discussions should retain all communication with regards to approvals.

Production Sample is taken from production unit, by the bulk production is continuing, production sample represents the original production pieces to be exported to Buyer. Usually the exporter send production sample to Buyer once only, during the Bulk production, But in some cases where the export order quantity is large enough for single style for example incase of Buyer – Wal-Mart,

The production samples were sent three times during the Bulk production. First Sample sent during 20% to 30% of Bulk production. Second fit sample sent during 50% to 60% of Bulk production and third production sample sent during 70% to 80% of Bulk Production.

If the factory wants to attract new buyers, they have to be won by showing samples of garments that the manufacturer can offer. For this purpose they produce on their own, samples of new designs. These samples are known as offer samples. The ultimate objective of producing these offer samples is to attract new buyers to find new markets.

Fg: Production sample

This Sample the manufacture keeps with them, covering all sizes & colors of the style of garments they exported. It is for the reference pieces, just to keep record for future reference. Garment produces this samples to the customer after all the requirements like accessories, poly bag, tag etc is been made and kept ready to ship the good before dispatched.

Fg: Shipment sample

Sample Approved:

Sample approval is a process whereby the supplier will make a sample of the agreed design for the purchaser to approval before mass production.

In China, I realized factory still do not understand what the main reason of Sample approval.

Fg: sample

The reason is the sample needs to be made as per agreement for whatever material, size, color. If factory is not able to make sample as per agreed in the agreement, they should inform the purchaser as soon as possible (A.S.A.P.) of the reason for not beening about to make an actual agreed sample. It could be due to lack of the agreed material in the market to make sample. Factory needs ask the material factory to make the customize material in order to make samples Or Due to certain process it is not possible to make sample for 1 or 2 pieces. Communication is the most importance part in a project management, if supplier takes action in their own opinion, then where is the purchaser’s control to this order?If both buyers and sellers spent more time getting the sample process done correctly then there would be far less problems and misunderstanding later on, and those problems that do occur would be far easier to deal with. Buyers one of your best tools for protecting your investment is to have signed confirmation samples both in your hands and in the hands of the factory making your product.

Sample Approved Procedure:

The manufacturer must submit two initial samples in the core / base size as specified below:

Women’s wear woven fabric Size 10

Knit fabric Size S

Menswear Top Size M

Bottom Size 34

Children’s wear Girls Size 10

Boys Size 10

Junior Size 4

Toddlers Size 1

Babies Size 0

Sample Submission Procedure

When submitting a sample, supplier must ensure a Sample Detail Card to be attached onto the left underarm for tops and left side seam under waist band for bottoms. The card MUST have the following information:

• Supplier / factory name

• Harris Scarfe style number

• Size

• Description

• Sample approval status (eg: 1st fit, PP, Advertising, etc.)

• Garment size

• Fabric details

o Yarn count

o Construction

o Fibre content

o Fabric weight

o and any finishes

• Production country

• Colour

• Comments

• Name / signature of supplier’s QA technician / Merchandiser

All relevant sections on Sample Detail Card MUST be filled in and signed off by supplier’s QA technician and / or supplier’s Merchandiser.

Design Sample

Approve styling and fit. MUST follow all directions given on Counter Spec or by Buyer for Development sample. Acceptance number of samples prior production approval will be 2 (max).

Counter sample

Spec sheet showing both original sample measurements and required sample measurements will be supplied by Harris Scarfe QA department. MUST measure to required spec and to be marked as 1st fit sample.

Development sample

Sample submitted from supplier without having a counter spec issued. Buyer will give instructions. Basic block spec measurements will be given by Harris Scarf Buyer or QA technician. Samples do not measure to required basic specs are not acceptable

First fit sample

MUST meet the following requirements:

• Correct styling

• Correct fabric content, handle and weight

• Measurements to be to required spec as supplied

• Correct accessories (different colors are acceptable

– BUT must be correct type, brand, length, size and quality)

• Correct Garment Approval Form (GAF) to be filled in all relevant sections

• Must be signed off as correct by supplier’s QA technician

Second fit sample

MUST be as per spec requirements and be accompanied by the supplier’s comments. Incorrect second samples are unacceptable.

Pre-Production sample

MUST meet the following requirements:

• Correct styling

• Correct bulk fabric

• Correct all accessories

??????????? • Correct required measurements

• Correct beading / embroidery

• Correct wash / hand-feel

Relevant sections on GAF sheet must be filled out and signed off as correct by supplier’s QA technician.

Advertising samples

To be forwarded upon Buyer’s request for advertising

• Correct styling

• Correct bulk fabrics

• All color-ways as per order

• Correct accessories

• Correct beading / embroidery

• Correct wash / hand-feel

• Correct required measurements

Fg: Advertising sample

(Can be incorrect fit measurements of PP sample has yet been approved for production)

Fabric / Trim test reports

Testing is to be completed according to Harris Scarf Standards and submitted at Pre Production sample stage with cover sheet advising test results to Harris Scarf QA department for approval. Supplier MUST take immediate and urgent action to improve fabric quality when a test fails. MUST advise Harris Scarf QA department and Buyer if this may result in delayed delivery.

Fully graded size spec

To be issued when fit has been approved. Correct graded spec with appropriate Harris Scarf grade rule MUST be approved and signed off by supplier QA technician and submitted to Harris Scarf QA department for reference.

Production / Pre-shipping sample

MUST arrive at Harris Scarf buying office no later than 48 hours prior leaving factory. MUST be accompanied by correct Inspection Report, supplier measurement sheet with ALL measurement points as per graded spec and signed off as correct by supplier QA technician and / or Production Manager.

Inspection report

Correct relevant sections to be filled in and submitted with production / pre-shipping sample. Highlight area, which have not passed inspection and advise a plan of action to correct the problems. Advise any areas have failed inspection and can not be correct for Harris Scarf QA technician and Buyer to make a commercial decision (reject or accept).

After approving the sample buyer and supplier negotiate each other about pricing. It is the place where both parties tried their best to find the best output. Supplier wants to raise maximum price on the contrary buyer tries to reduce the price to get maximum profit. At the eleventh hour both parties are become happy with the ultimate outcome about decision.

Price Negotiation:

One of the most important skills a buyer and a seller must muster is the ability to negotiate. As most high street fashion selling prices are very competitive, the greatest scope for improving profit in a product is the reduction of cost price. There are many factors that influence the final cost of a product including fabric garments construction, order volume, lead – time, and delivery terms. These particular issues are discussed in more detail throughout the book.

Negotiation is a process of communication and exchange through which the interested parties make a series of demands and compromises: it involves the trading of benefits between parties. The basic principle is to trade what is of low value to you but of the greater value of the other party. Thereby reducing the cost of success to you. However the aim of negotiation should be to ensure that both parties are happy with the final outcome or agreement, otherwise one or the other will not continue to participate.

The old scenario of the retailer always winning and supplier always losing results in both parties effectively losing. Traditionally, the dominant fashion retail groups have seen the availability of large numbers of suppliers as a means of trading.

One off against another to achieve a cheaper cost price consequently many of suppliers who lost out ceased to do business with those retailers again. Short-term cost-price gains resulted in short-term relationships with many suppliers. Whit the end result being a large, unwieldy and diverse supplier base operating as efficiently as it should.

By the same token an inexperienced buyer can be vulnerable to a supplier wanting to secure an unreasonable cost price, resulting in the fashion retailer delisting them in the future for being nuncupative. As such it is no better for the supplier to be in a situation where they are winning and the retailer is losing. The common wisdom about negotiation is that both sides should aim to work together to achieve a mutually acceptable result, which is usually referred as a win-win situation

The process of Negotiation:

A successful negotiation outcome does not generally occur through luck, but by following a clear process. The process reflects the different levels of knowledge of the subject of negotiation, various parities and the negotiation. The following is an outline of steps essential to effective negotiation.

Researching the needs of both parties

The greater the knowledge a buyer has of their own and the supplier’s requirements, the better able they are to construct an acceptable solution. The buyer must be clear about both the department mark-up to be placed on the product cost price and the intended retail selling price so that she or he can judge the viability of the supplier’s product. She or he should also have sufficient product construction knowledge to understand how changes can be made to achieve better value in the product. Frequently the supplier will make suggestions to try to bring the cost price closer to the buyer’s target. However an experienced buyer can speed up the process by making suggestions which will be acceptable to her. Lead- time is another lever for negotiation with differing operational issues for both parties, if the enough time in hand to use extended lead-time as a bargaining tool.

The process of researching needs does not stop once the negotiation is underway as the body language and facial expression of both parties will signal their reactions of the ongoing discussion. Successful buyers will listen to and watch suppliers carefully, making judgment about how to trade benefits with them. In addition to listening and observation skills, buyer’s need to be able to use question effectively. Open questions require a respondent to elaborate, which may provide the buyer will valuable knowledge on how to proceed when meeting a supplier. Closed questions can be used to generate specific responses.


Effective preparation is also vital to successful communication. The particular preparation required will vary according to the nature of meeting, but some factors are always important. Meetings should begin on time and follow a clear agenda with a realistic amount of time to accommodate the work. Where there is an existing relationship with a supplier, a file containing the relevant notes and documentation relating to the order’s should be read prior to the meeting and taken in for reference. Supplier meeting is usually held in uncluttered or empty rooms or offices to avoid any distraction from the business of the meeting. It is also usual for there to be two people from buying in the meeting.

So that buyer can have an objective view point available while personality involve in the negotiation. It is essential that the buyer also has identified the maximum and minimum positions that she will accept for a range of factors including:

  • Product Price
  • Order Size
  • Lead-time


Having identified where the respective positions lie between them. The buyer and supplier can make specific proposals to set the boundaries of the negotiation. It is unlikely that many of the offers initially made will end up being accepted, so both parties allow for some maneuver. This is the opportunity for the buyer to being trading what is the relatively low value for her but of more value to the supporter.


The likely framework of a final settlement will emerge in the discussion as each side proves the other and make suggestions. Answers to suggestions can be revealing with the chose of words and tone signaling interest of reluctance and should be noted as potential bargaining material. There will areas on which one side can move than more then the other and vice versa. It is important for the buyer to make a note of which ones provide the greatest and least opportunities fore flexibility, for the trade off later on in the negotiation.

Counter and revised offers:

This is the real; bargaining where elements of the order, such as numbers of units, product details, lead-time and so on, are being decided in the context of an overall cost price. The buyer should make firm proposals and be cautious of offering concessions unless she is getting one is return. The final element that will pull all of the other variables together will be the cost price, which is agreed at the end. Although the bargaining may be tough, the sprit of the communication should be remaining friendly and not adversarial. Parties are more likely to cooperate if they are being treated fairly and reasonably.


It is vital to summarizes at key stages throughout the negotiation when significant points are agreed, to avoid losing early gains as potential variables included in the negotiation, small but significant points can be easily forgotten throughout. Records will also provide both sides with an explanation of how the ideal was constructed should a particular variable become contentious at a later date.

Agree and Commit:

Once the parties have agreed an order, they have to communicate the details to the functions. This supplier may need to book production space, order fabric/ trimmings and source labels/tickets. The buyer will need to inform the merchandiser of the retail selling value of the order so that a track can be kept on spending.

Once the line is edited and the sales representative has the line, then the first pattern is made into a production pattern. The Production Pattern is a perfected first pattern. This means that the first pattern is corrected for fitting and sewing details and the lay of the fabric is tested for an economical marker. The production pattern is then given to the Grader and Marker Maker to be graded into sizes. These days the computer is mainly used to perform these two steps, although there are still hand graders and markers who do an excellent job.

Once the pattern is completed, we will grade using the specifications provided or we can assist in establishing specs for your product. AAA Patterns & Marking Services can help develop grade rules for the market that product is intended (men, women, youth, child, toddler).

Our grading is performed on the Gerber Accomack system. All grading is then checked for accuracy. Once we are confident the pattern and grading are correct, we can send you a graded size set for approval. The patterns may be sent either electronically via email or on paper.

Grading is taking the first production pattern, which is normall