Overview On Water Fountain

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A traditional
water fountain is an arrangement
where water issues from a source, fills a basin of some kind, and is drained
away. A fountain is an arrangement where water is forced into the air under
pressure creating jet. Water fountain may be of various kinds- fountains may be
wall fountains
or free-standing. The small water fountain made by us was a free standing type
fountain. Different types of water fountains are splash fountain, Spray
fountains, fountains for drinking water, animated fountain etc. In fountains
sheets of water may flow over varied surfaces of stone, concrete or metal.
Basins may overflow from one into another, or the overflow may imitate a
natural cascade.
Many fountains are located in small, artificial, ornamental ponds, basins and
formal garden pools, and often they include sculpture.

One of the most
common features of a fountain, if there is enough pressure, is one or more jets,
in which water is forced into the air under pressure to some height. A famous
example of such a modern fountain rises from the surface of Lake Geneva.

is a need for good water quality in contemporary fountains, regardless of their
avowed intended use. Regardless of the fact that some fountains are designed
and built not as bathing fountains, but are rather used simply as architectural
decor, people will often drink from, bathe or wash their hands in any fountain.
Therefore minimum water quality standards are necessary, regardless of intended

water fountain created by us was of three stages. It’s a variation among water
fountains. The fountain was erected before fluid mechanics lab of BUET. A
centrifugal pump was set inside the lab for supplying water.

1.2 Historical Background of water

fountains depended on the natural gravitational flow of water, from a spring or aqueduct supplied by a distant and higher source
of water, which provided hydraulic head .Hellenistic
hydraulic engineers employed great originality in designing fountains, where
the water pressure might be employed to animate automata and water organs.

motion was first described in 1206 by Iraqi engineer and inventor al-Jazari when the kings of the Artuqid dynasty in Turkey commissioned him to
manufacture a machine to raise water for their palaces. The finest result was
an machine called the double-acting reciprocating piston pump,
which translated rotary motion to reciprocating motion via the crankshaftconnecting rod mechanism.

early fountains were geometrically regularized springs, developed in the
classic Persian garden. These gardens were typically enclosed and were designed
to provide relaxation. The effect of sunlight was the main concern regarding
the structural aspect of the Persian garden design. Shapes and textures were
specifically chosen for their ability to direct sunlight. In the 16th century
elaborate fountain displays were garden features of Mannerist gardens of Central Italy and the Mughal gardens of India.

Early Modern English
employed fountain to refer to a
natural spring water or source, which the 16th century garden fountain might
consciously imitate in a grotto.

1.3 Objective of the Project

Water fountain has
various types of uses. It can be used for beautification of nature or aesthetic
appeal. As a decorative addition to the window garden or merely a wall piece of
modern art, the sound and sight of running water is very delightful. The cool
touch of water against the fingertips reminds us about heavenly peace. The
shape and size of garden water fountains is so varied and creative that the
choice of any given fountain is as wide as the architect’s imagination. In
water garden the fountain plays not only its traditional role as a centerpiece,
but also that of an aerator if desired. In some traditions the water fountain
is a source of spiritual enlightenment.

Water fountain can
be installed for supplying drinking water. A water fountain or drinking
fountain is designed to provide drinking water and has a basin arrangement with
either continuously running water or a tap.

The objective of
our project was to design a unique shape of staged water fountain that would
add to the variety of choice for the people. Also its objective was to produce
a cheap and economical water fountain for the indigenous customers. Although, some
water fountains of continuous shape are available internationally, none of them
has three stages.

 1.4 How to choose and set up a Fountain


kind of


Plug an electric
pump into a ground-fault circuit interrupter, which may need to be installed by
a licensed electrician. The device will shut down power from the outlet to the
pump when it senses any problems.


We should make our
freestanding fountain a centerpiece by situating it prominently at the
intersection of two paths. A wall fountain is less conspicuous, and the element
of surprise is part of its charm. Place it at the end of a walk or at the side
of a patio or courtyard garden.

Simple and

fountain in a water garden is an aesthetically pleasing addition to the already
fantastic realm of imagination that these expressions of art produce. The
fountain in a water garden not only enhances beauty. They also deliver in both the
relaxing sounds of rushing water as well as serve to aerate and clean the water.

bathing fountain
intended for people to cool off in. Although many fountains were not designed
as bathing fountains, children of all ages often use them for that purpose.
Some fountains are fenced in, or have raised edges as a barricade to keep
people out. In other situations, fountains are designed to allow easy access,
and feature nonslip surfaces, so that people can safely use them to cool off in
on hot summer days.

Its important to plan a water fountain properly.
Here are some considerations which will be helpful for planning a water


We should pick the right location. Before excavating
for a pond or similar water feature we should check the location of utility
lines. We should avoid placing a pond beneath the trees because it will fill
with leaves and debris. If we are thinking about a spray fountain, it should be
placed in a location protected from wind. Zoning code may govern how close to
the property line we can install a water garden.


Scale, proportion and style should be considered
carefully. In most cases, a water feature should function as an accent-not a
focal point. In a small garden, a decorative ceramic pot fitted with
re-circulating bubbler may be used. A fountain with geometric lines will look
best with a formal house and garden.


We should decide whether the water is moving or
still. Moving water can produce a pleasant murmur. On the other hand the
tranquility of still water offers a glassy, calm surface that may be a
beautiful reflecting pool in the garden. Moving water requires a power source
to run the pump.


We have to determine if the water feature will
contain fish or plants. Fish will help the mosquito population down. Still
water is generally the most favorable for the plants, moving water provides
more oxygen for fish. If the pond is shallow water will evaporate quickly in
direct sun. In this case, a float valve should be installed for controlling the
water supply to maintain the proper water level.

2.2Types of water
fountains on material basis

Fountains can be made from various types of material
as required their life span. A variety of materials like cast iron , granite,
slate, copper, concrete, resin etc can be used effectively for constructing a
water fountain.

Aluminum water

These aluminum garden fountains are hand made in the
USA of finest quality materials and measured against the highest standards of
craftsmanship. Aluminum gives a traditional, early American look to these

Cast stone water

These beautiful fountains come in a wide range of
styles including European, Landscape, Animals, Pacifica and statuary. These all
are made with great care in the USA. Made of durable cast stone, each one is a
work of art that will last so long, they will become family heirlooms.

Copper water

These copper water fountains are made specifically
for use outdoors and have been carefully crafted of high quality materials.
There are varieties of copper garden fountains such as wall hanging,
free-standing sculptural and copper sprinkler sculptures that gently bathe our
lawn and flower beds with glimmering streams of water.

Water fountains
made of other materials

The versatility of outdoor fountains is
unparalleled. Economical and durable, the quality materials used to make these
water fountains are lightweight and strong so that they will withstand the
elements and can be easily moved. In our small  project we have used PVC pipes, wood to make a
water fountain.

2.3 The basic steps of building a water fountain:

All that is needed to build a simple
water fountain:

  • A small water pump (less than 100 gallons per
    hour) and clear plastic tubing (1/2″ inner dimension or 5/8″
    outer dimension).
  • A container for supplying water.
  • Plants such as ivy, flowers, bamboo.
  • Figurines.
  1. Pump.
    Place the water pump in the bottom of the container, making sure the cord
    is draped toward the back. Be sure the electric wire is not bent too
    sharply. The pump can be in any spot. Use the suction cups that come with
    most pumps to stick it to the bottom of the container.

the pump is in place, put some water into the container and make sure the pump
is working. Add tap water to more than cover the intake valve (2″
minimum). Plug the pump into the electrical outlet. If you are using a pump
with a regulator, you may want to see what the different settings will do.
Unplug the pump and adjust the water flow, if needed. You can also test out the
pump and regulator in the sink or bucket prior to placing it in the container.

  1. Tubing.
    The most common tubing size is 1/2″ inner diameter, 5/8″ outer
    diameter. Cut the tubing length to fit your container and design. Fit the
    clear plastic tubing on the pump spout and get about 8″ of the tubing
    to elevate the water.
  1. Rocks.
    Use larger rocks and stones for filling the bottom (generally they won’t
    be seen) and smaller ones for accenting the visible top. Arrange the rocks
    and stones to anchor the water pump and to give the water flow a diverse,
    irregular path. Fill the container to about an inch from the top of the
    container with rocks and stones.

covering the pump with rocks is not really necessary, it does make it easier to
conserve room in a small container and helps muffle any humming noise. You may
also choose to place larger rocks in the container around the pump first and
then fill with other small rocks.

  1. Accents. Add shells, crystals, or figurines to your water fountain.
    Accent your water fountain with ivy (either artificial or real), bamboo,
    flowers, or just leave it plain. Add moss and foliage as desired.
  1. Adjustments. Plug in the pump and adjust the water volume and stones as
    needed. Suction excess water from the container with a turkey baster.

2.4 Water
Fountain Pumps

We can have quiet, submersible, centrifugal fountain
pumps in a variety of sizes and strengths for a water fountain. When choosing a
pump it’s a good idea to consider the following-
Whether the pump to be used for a fountain,
watercourse or filter.
What flow rate of the fountain should be.
Volume of the reservoir pool (The flow rate should
not exceed the pool’s volume.)
What is the “head” i.e. the height of the highest
point of the water is to be pumped over the water surface of the reservoir
The horsepower of the pump.

There are a wide variety of pumps which can be used
perfectly for water fountains. Several types are shown below:

FountainPro Water Fountain Pump WA-125SW Mini-Jet 606 Fountain Pump

GPH Surge  
FountainPro Water Fountain Mini-Jet 606

Pump with pump

Fountain heads

70 GPH Submersible Pump Power Head 120 Pump with Light  Frog Pump Cover in Antique White


FountainPro Water Fountain Pump WT-55-L JR-450 Submersible Pump Solar Pump - 33 GPH

Pro   JR-450
Submersible Pump Solar Pump -33GPH


The devices used in our Project:

Centrifugal Pump


Planning a Water Garden using fountain

were beyond the reach of many gardeners. Concrete — expensive and
difficult to install — was the main material used in construction. Concrete
also required special care to use and maintain. Most people had little choice
but to call professionals for planning and installation, adding to the expense.
A water garden was something one dreamed of but did not actually own.

more modern
lining materials — PVC and fiberglass are currently the main ones — material
costs have dropped enormously and installation is easily carried out by anyone.
We don’t even have to know how to nail two boards together to be able to
install a water garden.

amount of space available is also a factor. Even the tiniest yards have room
for a small water garden (people have been known to raise goldfish and a single
dwarf water lily in a tub on a balcony), but a truly balanced water garden with
a variety of plants and animals takes a fair amount of space.

Fig: A three stage water fountain

Pool depth is also a consideration. For a simple reflecting pool, we’ll need
only a few inches of water, but very shallow pools are subject to extreme
temperature change, which is not conducive to living organisms such as plants
and fish. A minimum depth of 18 inches for much of the pond’s area is
desirable. To overwinter plants and fish in cold climates, at least part of the
pond should drop to three feet.

shape of the pond will depend a great deal on the effect we wish to create.
Square, rectangular, round, or oval ponds give a formal appearance to the yard,
an effect heightened by using fountains. If we keep our yard neatly mowed, if
shrubs and hedges are carefully trimmed, and other plantings are in formal
beds, a geometric pond will suit it perfectly. If, on the other hand, our yard
is composed of mixed borders and naturalistic plantings, a formal water garden
would look out of place.

The topography of the site should also be considered. Fountain should not be
placed in the lowest section of the yard: Any overflow could quickly turn the
area into a bog. We have to make sure there is some possibility for drainage. If
we plan to include a naturalistic cascade or waterfall, a yard with a somewhat
abrupt slope is most fitting.


have used PVC pipe of different diameters, wooden conical blocks .The nozzle of
the fountain was also made of  wood. Mild
steel screws were used to fasten the pipes and to make pipes concencentric.
Some screws were used to join the wooden nozzle with the PVC pipe. At three
stages ,three nozzles of different shape were used . The bottom of the
fountain(outer pipi) was connected to a reducer made of  steel.

3.2Water supply

centrifugal pump was used to deliver water through pipe. The pump was set
inside the fluid machinery lab. A suction pipe was connected to the pump at its
inlet port. At the other end of the pipe there was a foot valve. The pump was
set to draw water from a reservoir. At the delivery port of the pump a flow
control valve was connected. After the flow control valve a long hosepipe was
connected and through it the water goes to the fountain.


paralelly connected pumps were used for the project whose  specifications are given below:

Model TJ-10M

0.5 HP

50 Hz

lift- 5m

Head 7m


in China

 Fig 3-1: A
centrifugal pump used in project


diverging nozzles were designed for the fountain. The purpose of using nozzle
is to spray out water at a desired shape which was like umbrella shape. The
nozzles were designed  and made by the
pvc pipe and wood deflector. The design of three individual nozzle are described
as below-

3.4.1 Upper stage nozzle:

  • First a wooden conical
    block of certain dimension was made which is shown below



  • Heat was applied to
    the desired end of  PVC pipe (1″)
    by  oil heating method. Then the
    wooden conical block was pushed through the heated pipe end

  • The pipe was diverged
    as shown below
  • After the pipe was
    diverged, the wooden conical block was used to make the upper portion of
    the nozzle. Turning the wooden block in lathe machine in machine shop, it
    was reshaped as shown below-

Cross sectional view of 1st stage water deflector

  • The turned wooden
    block or deflector was then joined to the diverge pipe by screw .Thus the
    upper stage nozzle was prepared which is shown

Second Stage nozzle

  • The conical block of predefined dimension was
    prepared for second or middle stage nozzle as shown below-


  • The PVC pipe of
    outer  diameter 41.2mm(inner dia
    34.2mm) was heated at one end. Then the second conical block was pressed
    through the heated end as shown below-

  • The second PVC pipe
    was diverged as shown below:
  • Turning the second
    conical block in lathe machine in machine shop, it was reshaped as shown

second stage nozzle was prepared as shown the figure below-

3.4.3The third stage Nozzle

This is the lower stage nozzle of the water
fountain. The nozzle was prepared in several stages. The stages are-
  • A wooden conical block of following shape was prepared-

Conical block Top

  • A  PVC pipe of outer diameter
    60mm(inner diameter 51.7mm) was diverged by heating it and then pressing
    the above mentioned conical block.

Ø  The diverged pipe by oil heating method is like below-
The wooden conical block was reshaped by turning in
lathe machine and a hole was made in it whose diameter was almost equal to the
outer diameter of first stage pipe. The figure is mentioned as the following
The third stage nozzle was completed as the way
shown in the following figure-


Figure 3-2 :3-Stage Water fountain(first


Figure 3-3
:3-Stage Water fountain(final trial)

4.1 Maintaining
a Water Fountain

To Keep a water garden attractive and
healthy is surprisingly easy. Steps to be taken for the maintenance of a water

Ø  Plants should be removed occasionally to prune away
dead or dying leaves. While we are at it, insert fertilizer tablets,
about one per five quarts, into their containers.
  • Any dead leaves and other organic material that
    has accumulated on the pool bottom should be removed.
Ø  An occasional spray with a hose will knock any aphids
that have developed on plant leaves into the water where fish will eat them.
  • The filter should be cleaned occasionally
    according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Ø  Add water as necessary to maintain the proper water
Ø  The water should not be murky as it loosens the charm
of the fountain.
Ø  Water can be changed occasionally as it emptied by
siphoning. Larger pools can be easily emptied by attaching a piece of hose to
the pump and allowing the water to drain away.
  • The water level should
    be checked daily for the first week, adding fresh water as needed to keep
    the pump completely covered
  • We can add a small
    amount of bleach to the water to cleanse the fountain. Periodically, clean
    the fountain, container, pump, rocks, etc. to remove any slime and algae.

4.2 Maintenance of Fountain pumps:

The foot valve is used in the suction line of fountain pump to avoid dirt, mud
etc. It also helps to priming. There was a flow control valve (gate valve) in
the delivery

Figure 4-1: Bypass system of
3-stage water fountain

Hose pipe was connected to the delivery side by clips. All the fittings should
be cleaned at times and the must be joined properly.

the pump: Pump do need cleaning occasionally. It often depends where the water
fountain is situated e.g. under trees with falling leaves. The manufacturer’s
instructions should be followed with regard to cleaning.

power: High quality solar powered fountain pumps are ideal where it is
difficult to access electricity. They will work reasonably well in sun-shine.
Adding extra solar panels can increase the power of the pump.

power: Electric fountain pumps are powered either directly from the main or
electricity is passed through a transformer to produce a low voltage current .A
circuit breaker makes main electricity much safer to use in the garden.  

5.1 Calculation of flow rate

Different shape of fountain under
different flow rate:

Observation no

Mass of empty bucket(kg)

Mass of water with bucket(kg)

Mass of water(kg)



Mass flow rate(kg/s)


















5-1:Flow of fountain for fully opened valve.

Pump capacity calculation:

for calculation:


Inner diameter of 1st pipe : 19.2mm

diameter of 1st pipe : 26.0mm

of first pipe   : 1.08m

diameter of 2nd pipe  : 34.2mm

diameter of 2nd pipe  :

diameter of 3rd pipe  :

diameter of 3rd pipe  :

of 3 rd pipe   : 0.7m

of 1st pipe : 3.4mm

of 2nd pipe  : 3.5mm

of 3rd pipe    : 4.2mm     

between 2nd & 3
rd stage  : 180mm

of 3rd stage : 700mm

of hose pipe : 9.3metre

of hose pipe  : 34mm

of short PVC pipe   : 0.38m

of short steel pipe

to fountain :

of steel pipe

to pump   :1.22m

loss co-efficient


of suction pipe(PVC),L
 : 1.93m

of suction pipe,D
: 0.026m

of short CI pipe   : 0.254m

loss co-efficient


1.174 kg/s


sectional area of suction pipe,



of water through suction pipe,

 Vs =  Q/As

of water at room temp,  μ= 8.9×10

number,  Re=ρdv/μ

in suction side:

Reynolds number and relative roughness of pipe, we get from Moody diagram

in PVC pipe,  h
1 =fLV2/2gD 


valve & bend loss, h
2= (k1+k2)v2/2g

from Moody diagram, for steel pipe


in cast iron pipe, h
= fLV2/2gD 


loss in suction side =0.2424m+0.25m+0.0877m

=0.58 m

in delivery side:

loss in CI pipe, h
= fLV2/2gD

= (0.037×1.22×2.22)/(2×9.81×0.026)

= 0.43m

in T-joint & Gate valve, h
= (k1+k2)V2/2g


pipe loss:

sectional area of hose pipe  A=πd


=9.1×10-4 m2

through hose pipe = (1.18×10
-3)/(9.1×10-4)  m/s 

number, Re = ρdv/μ

=(997×0.034×1.3)/ 8.9×10-4


Loss in hose pipe,  h
3 = fLV2/2gD


= 0.9424m

in short PVC pipe,  h
4 = fLV2/2gD

Losses in fountain:

rate through inner pipe(1
st stage),

= (π×0.01922/4)×2.22 m3/s

Loss in 1st pipe(inner), h5= flv2/2gd

rate through 2
nd stage, Q2=

in 2
nd stage pipe,
6= flv2/2g(d2-d1)  

= 0.1869m

rate through 3rd stage,    Q3= (A

in 3
rd stage pipe,
7= flv2/2g(d3-d2)  

loss in delivery side = h

                           = (0.43+0.55+0.9424+0.477+0.1822+0.1869+0.24) m

head, H = Suction head+ Delivery head+ Losses+ Velocity head at exit

output power,  P
0= γQH


5.3 Variation of water flow
with the annular gap of three stages

3rd stage


2nd stage


1st stage


 Figure 5-2: Fountain where 3-stages are
indicated sequencially

Table: Calculation of 1st stage flow when annular gap
is 4mm

No of obs

Mass of empty bucket(kg)

Mass of water with bucket(kg)

Mass of water(kg)

Time (sec)

Flow rate(kg/s)

Average flow rate(kg/s)




















   5.3.1 1st stage Nozzle:

Annular gap(mm)










2nd stage Nozzle:

Annular gap(mm)










Annular gap(mm)











  • In this project first
    of all three nozzles were designed for making a three stage continuous
    water fountain. The designed nozzle were made of wood, where other nozzles
    are built commercially using stainless steel. The nozzles were set to the
    fountain on trial basis. We have made three trials and finally selected
    the best fitted nozzles. Three concentric pipes were used for making the
    fountain. But the pipes could not be adjusted 100% concentrically this
    causes the flow of water to deform the desired cylindrical shape.
  • The pipes could not be
    diverged in a uniform shape which causes some irregularities in the water
    flow. For better and continuous flow of water the pipe should be casted in
    a desired shape.
  • There was a little problem
    in the shape of water of first stage nozzle. That happened due to the pins
    used to fasten the wood deflector with diverged pipe.
  • The nozzles were made
    of wood. Hence the surface finished is not perfectly smooth which hinders
    the water flow.
  • The divergence of 1st
    and 2nd stage nozzles should be designed more precisely for
    uniform flow.The 2nd & 3rd stage nozzle was adjusted by
    screws which interrupt the flow of water.
  • The nozzle could not
    be adjusted with the PVC pipes concentrically with uniform clearance which
    causes the non-uniformity of shape.
  • During the calculation
    of output power friction factor was determined from Moody diagram and
    using this factor pipe loss was determined from Darcy or Weisbach
    equation. The value of ‘f’ was an approximate value.
  • Two pumps were
    connected parallely and using a T-joint flow was delivered. A gate valve
    was set at delivery to control the flow.There were some bends in the hose
    pipe that were not considered fully. That must cause determining the pump
    capacity somewhat smaller than the required value.
  • At the upper stage of
    the fountain the shape of the jet was not so uniform. At the lower stage
    of nozzle the flow was of required shape.
  • In the calculation of head
    losses the system’s nozzle loss were not considered instead the losses
    were assumed.



project is concerned of designing and constructing of a three stage continuous
flow water fountain. During the execution of the project we have learnt a lot
about the components and accessories of a water fountain such as supply pumps,
piping system, flow control device, fountain nozzles, fountain materials etc.
The constructed fountain is situated in front of the EME building of BUET. It
can be installed anywhere to improve the scenic beauty. It is expected that the
knowledge gained from this project will help us later in our professional life.
We have learnt many practical things like how the materials can be collected,
how various components should joined to one another etc while making the
fountain. We wish to express our respect and gratitude to our supervisor to
give us the opportunity of executing such a wonderful project.


  • Pump of larger
    capacity should be used to make the shape of all three stages more
    uniform. This will also spread the water flow to a larger distance.
  • The shape of the wood
    deflector is an important factor. The shape and size of wood deflector
    determines the pattern of issuing water i.e. umbrella shape.
  • The selection of hose
    pipe should be of better quality. The diameter of the hose pipe for this
    project should be less.
  • Lighting and coloring
    of water may be added for aesthetic appeal of the fountain.
  • Height of the fountain
    can be increased to attract attention of observer from a far distance.
  • Statuary may be added
    for attractive sight.
  • Setting the pump near
    to the reservoir would allow lower capacity pump to be used.
  • Nozzles can be made of
    stainless steel that will make the fountain to last for longer time.
    Nozzles should be designed such a way that the clearance of flow may be
    adjusted easily which will be helpful to get rid of monotony.
  • Automatic flow
    adjustment devices can be used to give a rhythmic of flow rate and the


Mechanics Through Worked out Problems

Fluid Mechanics

By Streeter

Hydraulic Machines