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1.1 Introduction

Mushroom is a large reproductive structure of edible fungi,
which is the most popular nutritious, delicious and medicinal vegetable in the
world. It is now one of the promising concepts for crop diversification in
Bangladesh. The climatic condition of Bangladesh is completely suitable for
mushroom cultivation. It does not require any cultivable land. It can grow in
room by racking vertically. Therefore, its yield as well as benefit per unit
area is higher than any other vegetable in our country. It requires short time,
little capital and easy technique for cultivation. This is why all types of
people like male and female, youth and old even children and disabled can
easily participate in its cultivation. Therefore, it can generate huge scope of
employment opportunities for unemployed people. The raw materials for mushroom
cultivation like sawdust, paddy straw, wheat straw, sugar can baggage, waste
paper, used cotton, dervishes etc are very cheap and available in our country
and no materials are required to import from abroad for its cultivation.
Moreover, no chemical is necessary for its cultivation, therefore it is
completely organic and eco-friendly. Used substrate of mushroom cultivation is
one of the best sources of organic matter in the soil. Its cultivation may be
“a lifeboat” for survival of the landless people who do not have any source
other than their houses and own labor. Its cultivation can transfer as a
cottage industry and create a goods opportunity for export.

A Mushroom is the fleshy,
spore-bearing body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on
its food source. The standard for the name “Mushroom” is the cultivated white
button Mushroom. Mushroom designates the entire fungus when in culture or the
thallus of species forming the fruiting bodies called Mushrooms.

Mushroom production can play an
important role in managing farm organic wastes when agricultural and food
processing by-products are used as growing media for edible fungi. The spent
substrate can then be composed and applied directly back to the soil. This
publication includes resources for entrepreneurs who wish to do further
research. Many people are intrigued by mushroom nutritional and medicinal
properties, in addition to their culinary appeal. Mushroom contains many
essential amino acids. As a group, Mushroom also contains some unsaturated
fatty acids; provide several of the B vitamins, and vitamin D.  Mushroom are nutritious: They are a good
source of B vitamins, especially niacin and riboflavin, and rank the highest
among vegetables for protein content.

1.2 Objectives
of the study

The main objectives of the study are
as follows:

  • To create awareness about the Mushroom among
  • To know and explore the cultivation in
  • To make our economy strong by exporting
    Mushroom product
  • To learn some important aspects like Management
    aspects- a controlled management, Marketing aspects- make profit with
    consumer satisfaction, financial aspects- arrange the financial support,
    and Socio-economic aspects- make people aware about good or bad products
    with reasonable price.

1.3 Sources of Data

Report is based upon both primary and secondary sources of data. Those
information stated in the below-

A primary source is a document, recording or other source of information that was created
at roughly the time being studied, by an authoritative source, usually one with
direct personal knowledge of the events being described. Primary sources are
described as those sources closest to the origin of the information or idea
under study and the
original materials on which other research is based. They are usually the first
formal appearance of results in the print or electronic literature (for
example, the first publication of the results of scientific investigations is a
primary source.). They present information in its original form, neither
interpreted nor condensed nor evaluated by other writers. They are from the
time period (for example, something written close to when what it is recording
happened is likely to be a primary source.) Primary sources present original
thinking; report on discoveries, or share new information.

We have collected some information from the following primary sources:

  • Collected information by talking
    with the owners who are involved in the relevant business.
  • Make interview with
    Bangladesh ‘krisi unnyan & Somprosaron kandra’ Savar.
  • Get information from
    the customer by survey and direct talking.
  • Collected
    information from our potential retailers about our source of goods.
  • Financial institutions
  • Technical expertise
  • Get information by
  • Roots and transportation
  • newspaper articles
  • government documents

Secondary sources, on the
other hand, offer an analysis or a restatement of primary sources. They often
attempt to describe or explain primary sources. Some secondary sources not only
analyze primary sources, but use them to argue a contention or to persuade the
reader to hold a certain opinion. And also secondary sources are less easily
defined than primary sources. A newspaper article is a primary source if it
reports events, but a secondary source if it analyses and comments on those
events. In science, secondary sources are those which simplify the process of
finding and evaluating the primary literature.

We have also collected
data from the following secondary sources:

  • newspaper and magazines
  • health articles and journals
  • websites and television news
  • bibliographies
  • geographical works
  • commentaries from expertise
  • handbooks and data compilations
  • review articles and literature reviews and
  • textbooks

1.4 Methodology

To making these reports we have
collect the information from several organizations and persons who are Mushroom
researchers. To realize the market situation some surveys have been held by my
prepared questionnaires and some interviews were taken. Collected information’s
provided by various sources are strictly checked by me.

2.0 General Description of the Mushroom:


mushroom is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically
produced the climatic above ground on soil or on its food source. The standard
for the name “mushroom” is the cultivated white button mushroom,
Agarics Bosporus, hence the word mushroom is most often applied to fungi
(Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) that have a stem (stripe), a cap (pileups), and
gills (lamellae, sing. lamella) on the underside of the cap just as do
store-bought white mushrooms. However, “mushroom” can also refer to a
wide variety of gilled fungi, with or without stems, and the term is used even
more generally to describe both the fleshy fruiting bodies of some Ascomycota
and the woody or leathery fruiting bodies of some Basidiomycota, depending upon
the context of the word.

Popular Mushroom Varieties

All around the world:







In Bangladesh:

Mushrooms provide high protein and essential amino acids. Low
in fat and high in fiber, they also provide vitamins thus stimulating the immune
system. Eating two to three types of mushroom per day can provide the proper
amount of essential amino acid required by the body. It also supplies high
levels of protein and vitamins. Normally, one adult can consume about 200-800
gram per day. For elderly people and children, 200 and

grams are sufficient.

3.0 Mushroom cultivation process

of the production of white button mushroom in our country is seasonal. The
cultivation is done using conventional methods. Usually, un-pasteurized compost
is used, hence yields are very low. However, in recent years, yield of mushroom
has increased as a result of introduction of improved agronomic practices.
Cultivation of the common white button mushroom requires technical skill. Apart
from other factors, the system requires humidity, two different temperatures
that is-

Temperature for spawn or vegetative growth: 22-280C

 For fruit body formation: 15-180
Humidity: 85-95% and enough ventilation during.

that are sterilized are easily contaminated unless spawned under very aseptic
conditions. Therefore steaming at 1000 C (pasteurization) is more acceptable

    1. Compost preparation

Agricultural by products like cereal straw (wheat,
barley, paddy, oat and rice), maize stalks, hay, sugarcane baggage or any other
cellulose wastes can be employed. Wheat straw should be freshly harvested,
shining yellow in color and should not have been exposed to rains. The straw
should be in about 5-8cm long pieces, otherwise heap prepared by long straw
would be less compact which may lead to improper fermentation. Conversely; too
short straw makes heap too compact to allow enough oxygen to enter the centre
of the heap and lead to anaerobic fermentation. Wheat straw or any of the above
materials provide cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, which are utilized by
the mushroom mycelium as the carbon source. These materials also provide
physical structure to the substrate needed to ensure proper aeration during
composting for the build up of micro flora, which is essential for the
fermentation. Rice and barley straw are very soft, degrade very quickly during
composting and also absorb more water as compared to wheat straw. While using
these substrates, care should, therefore, be taken on the quantity of water to
be used, schedule of turnings and adjustment to the rate and type of
supplements. Since the byproducts used in composting do not have adequate
nitrogen and other components required for the fermentation process,
compounding mixture is supplemented with the nitrogen and carbohydrates, to
start this process.

2. Spawning

Spawning is mixing of spawn in for optimum and timely yields.
Optimum dose for spawn ranges between 0.5 and 0.75% of fresh weight of compost.
Lower rates result in slow spread of mycelium and chances for diseases and
competitors may increase. Higher rates may increase cost of spawning and very
high rate of spawn sometimes results in unusual heating of compost.

2. Crop management after spawning:

The optimum temperature for growth of A. Bosporus is 23 + –
20 C. Relative humidity in growing room should range from 85-90% during

3. Harvesting:

Usually 3 to 4 days after opening the bags, mushroom
primordial begin to form. Mature mushrooms become ready for harvesting in
another 2 to 3 days. An average biological efficiency (fresh weight of
mushrooms harvested divided by air-dry substrate weight x 100) can range
between 80 to 150% and sometimes even more. To harvest the mushrooms, they are
grasped by the stalk and gently twisted and pulled. A knife should not be used.
The mushrooms remain fresh for up to 3 to 6 days in a refrigerator/cool place.

3.1 Cultivated mushrooms vs. Wild

Wild Mushroom

Cultivated mushrooms

eating any mushroom, one have to properly identify the specie. Every year,
hundreds of people become ill and some even die because they collect wild
mushrooms and wrongly identify them. Eating cultivated mushrooms remains the
safest way for selecting edible mushrooms.

3.2 Selecting the right type of
mushrooms for cultivation

Poisonous Mushrooms

Most of the cultivated mushrooms are
from the saprophyte group; there are about 5,000 known species but very few
that can be cultivated economically. Select the most suitable type of mushrooms
according to your environment and to market demand.

 3.3 Mushroom vs. Toadstool

The relative size of the cap and
stalk vary widely. Shown here is a species of Macrolepiota. The terms “Mushroom”
and  “ Toadstool” go back centuries and
were never precisely definced nor was there consensus on application. The term
“ toadstool” was often, but not exclusively, applied to  poisonous mushrooms translates as “ deaths”
or to those that have the classic umbrella-like cap-and –stem form. Between
1400 and 1600 A.D. the terms tadstoles, frogstooled, frogge stoles, tadstooled,
tode stoles, toodys hatte. The term “toadstool” is nowadays used in
storytelling when referring to poisonous or suspect mushrooms. The classic
example of a toadstool is Amanita muscaria.

The relative sizes of the cap and
stalk vary widely. Shown here is a species of Macrolepiota.

3.4 Edible Mushroom Varieties in Bangladesh

The Chinese have cultivated the
mushroom for centuries. Of the 300 edible mushroom species, about 30 have been
domesticated. Only about 14 species can be commercially grown because of the
difficulties in artificial growing. These 14 species are:

mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

(Lentinus edodes)

oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus)

tail mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju)

top oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus citrinopileatus)

(Flammjlina Flutes)

mushroom (Volvariella volvacea)

mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

head mushroom (Hericium erinaceus)

ear (Auricularia auricula)

wood ear (Auricularia polytrich)

ear (Tremella fuciformis)

zhi (Ganoderma lucidum)

There is a huge prospect of mushroom
cultivation in Bangladesh. It can play an important role in eradicating
malnutrition, one of the main problems of the people, and preventing diseases.
By mushroom cultivation, it is possible to alleviate poverty and providing
employment for educated unemployed, youths, adolescents and women. The current
small market is dominated by- Mushroom Bangla Ltd for last 2 years. Industry
wide sales are expected to accelerate for at least the next 1 year.

The leading firm of Bangladesh which
structure the industry of Mushroom.

These firms are—

Mushroom Bangla—35%
(Capture by this firm)

Others 40% is capture by others small

 Marufs Mushroom—10.5% (Capture Approximately)

Asia Mushroom—8.5%
(Capture Approximately)

Nata Mushroom—6.5%
(Capture Approximately)

Green House Mushroom—9.5% (Capture Approximately)

Others — 25 %(
Capture Approximately)

So, Bangladesh mushroom industry is
consists of above big to little firm.

There is a huge prospect of mushroom
cultivation in Bangladesh. It can play an important role in eradicating
malnutrition, one of the main problems of the people, and preventing diseases.
By mushroom cultivation, it is possible to alleviate poverty and providing
employment for educated unemployed, youths, adolescents and women.

3.5 Mushroom cultivation offers
several advantages

Mushrooms can be cultivated on a
small and large scale to allow personal consumption or the start of a
commercial enterprise.

Collected mushrooms can be sold as a
supplemental or major source of income, depending on the size and number of
mushroom houses.

People with physical disabilities are
fully capable of accomplishing all necessary tasks in mushroom cultivation,
even if some modifications in constructions and equipment may be needed.
Specific tasks may need to be done differently because of certain disabilities.

Chronically ill or weak people can
work in a cooler environment since mushrooms grow under the shade. This reduces
physical exertion associated with open cultivation as with rice and small

Mushroom cultivation can be performed
by mentally disabled people. Several tasks required are repetitive and can
easily be learned.

For people interested in
experimenting, the range in types of mushrooms and cultivation techniques can
prove challenging and gratifying.

Mushroom cultivation offers a wide
range of activities most suitable for people with various needs, diverse
interests and specific capabilities.

Mushroom cultivation can be started
at a very low cost. In the province of Ubon Ratchathani a mushroom house
capable of holding 1,000 mushroom bags can be built for as little as 500 Baht
(US$12) depending on the creativity of the constructor and its ability to use
readily available and appropriate materials.

Mushrooms can be produced and sold
within 2 to 4 months.

  Collected mushrooms can be sold fresh
in the village, on the local market or directly from the Farm.

  Spawns or seeds and spawn bags can be
bought by the entrepreneur at a reasonably low cost allowing an acceptable
profit margin. Thailand spawn is among the least expensive.

  Spawn bags can be produced for
self-use and can also be sold, thus increasing the profit margin and generating
more income.

  Mushrooms can be processed into
various types of food, which will give an added value. (Mushrooms being highly
perishable, they must be quickly sold or processed)

can be consumed providing high levels of proteins and vitamins to all family

4.0 History of Mushroom in Bangladesh

Mushroom is a very nutritious,
delicious and fully ‘halal’ vegetable having medicinal qualities. Mushroom
cultivation in Bangladesh began in 1979 with assistance from Japanese organization
JOCDV. Later, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JAICA) came up in 1987
with its assistance. Mushroom cultivation slowed down in 1990 following
withdrawal of JAICA’s support.

Sheikh Ruhul Amin, director of the
Mushroom Development Project, says currently 13 species of mushroom are
cultivated in Bangladesh of which yester Mushroom is produced commercially to a
large extent. Mushroom fanning is in fact a very easy job. There is an
opportunity to make good profit by investing a little amount of capital and
labour. One can earn Tk 4-5 thousand a month by investing only Tk 10- 15

4.1 Classification

The genus Trichaptum, an example of a
polypore, a mushroom without a stalk, fruiting on a log. Main articles:
Scorecard (fungi), Basidiocarp and Ascocarp typical mushroom are the fruit
bodies of members of the order agaricales, whose type genus is agaricus and
type species is the field mushroom, agaricus campestris. However, in modern
molecularly defined classifications, all members of the order agaricales
produce mushroom fruit bodies, and many other gilled fungi, collectively called
mushrooms, occur in other orders in the class agaricomycetes. For example
chanterellers are in the Cantharellales, false chanterelles like Gomphus are in
the Gomphales, milk mushrooms and russulas as well as Lentinellus are in the
Russulales, while the tough leathery general Lentinus and Panus are among the
Polyporales but similar genera, are in the Hyenochaetales.

4.2 Growth rates

Many species of mushrooms appear
overnight, growing or expanding rapidly. This phenomenon is the source of several
common expressions in the English language including “mushrooming” or
“mushrooming” and “to pop up like a mushroom”. In actually all species of
mushrooms take several days to form primordial mushrooms fruit bodies though
they do expand rapidly by the absorption of fluids.

4.3 Size and Age

Though mushroom fruiting bodies are
short lived, the underlying mycelium can itself be long lived and massive. A
colony of Armillaria ostoyac in Malheur National Forest in the United States is
estimated to be 2400 years old, possibly older and spans an estimated 2200
acres. Most of the fungus is understand and in decaying wood or dying tree
roots in the form of white mycelia combined with black shoelace like
rhizomorphs that bridge colonized separated woody. Yellow, flower pot mushroom
at various states of development.

5.0 Description of Product & Services

The different kinds of products are
given below:



Local product:

Local product is for our country
consumption, we initially produce our local product as main product at the
starting year. So this product is vary important for our company as well as
serving the nation.

Based on our season pattern we
produce three times mushroom in a year-

Season—Straw Mushroom

Straw mushroom is only grown at
summer season. Its is very notorious for health & consume little cost than
bottom mushroom.

  Straw Mushroom

Season –Bottom Mushroom.

This mushroom is very popular in our
country as well as abroad. Its production is quit sensitive & costly. We
can only produce this mushroom at winter season.

   Bottom mushroom.

Season – Oyster Mushroom.

Although it can produce whole year we
emphasize a lot to here. Approximately our 60% production is in sector. It is
very much suitable for our climate as well people of our country like it very
much. Most of our business returns depend on this mushroom.

Export Product:

After establishing a local market we
are going to export our product in abroad. Our export product include our local
type of product & some other product.

Oyster Mushroom.

Bottom Mushroom.

Shitake Mushroom.

Shitake Mushroom.

This is a new type of mushroom we
produce for only export.As our plan for going to export at third year of our

We are going to produce a fresh product
we sell it in two form

Fresh From .

Dried from.

So as form Bangladesh
perspective we want bring some new concept in our product variation & bring
number of others mushroom in future.

5.1 Market Area Analysis

Somewhat subjective judgment, a market area’s size and
density has a profound impact on an analysis in terms of understanding
demographic trends, demand estimates and the competitive environment.

5.2 Impact of a Market Area

§  The number of households in a market
area is directly proportionate to its geographic size within an individual
market. Total householders residing in a market area can greatly influence
demand calculations.

§  The socio-economic composition
of a market area including income, household size, and tenure can be largely
influenced by the erroneous inclusion or exclusions of non-comparable areas.

§  Too large of a market area may
result in overstating demand for a proposed development. Conversely, too
conservative of a market area may discount the demand for new product,
especially if a lack of quality housing currently exists.

§  While a larger market area generally
includes higher household totals, it likewise may include a higher number of
directly comparable units. If using demand methodologies that net out recently
constructed and comparable rental units from the demand estimate, the increase
in the number of comparable units can outweigh the increase in dema.

§  Factors to be considered in
Determination of a Market Area

§  A primary consideration in defining
a market area is identifying those locations that offer alternative
opportunities to a potential renter for a subject site. The managers of
existing Comparable Properties near the site are excellent sources in
determining those competitive locations.

§  Available transportation linkages
including both traffic arteries and mass transit options can influence the size
of the market. Mass transit can have a significant impact on projects
addressing very low income households for which transportation options may be

§  Natural boundaries including rivers
can restrict the mover ship within a market due to lack of accessibility.

§  Whether grounded in reality or not,
market perceptions can be a significant determinant of market area boundaries.
Social stigmas often exist within sub-markets, with residents from one side of
a submarket may not move to a close by neighborhood, regardless of housing
opportunities. The construction of a new, attractive rental community may not
necessarily relieve this perception.

§  Proposed developments targeting a
special needs population such as seniors generally draw from a larger
geographic region. Given the smaller pool of qualified householders, the
location and quantity of comparable stock is of additional importance. An
acceptable market area for a family oriented rental community will often be too
conservative for a rental community targeting senior rental householders.

§  Differences in the quality and
services provided by wards, police stations, areas often influence consumer
location choice

§  The geographic areas covered by
local agencies, such as housing authorities, senior citizen centers,
community-based organizations can be a strong indicator of market area
boundaries, especially when the project has a community-based sponsor or

§  such as employees who might be
expected to reside in a development as a result of planned or existing job
opportunities and special needs households who are served by a
multi-jurisdictional agency that covers communities that are clearly distinct
market areas.

6.0 Market Size

To know our market strategy, we must
define our market size. Otherwise we are navigating without a map.

Objective: Understand the size, scope, competitive landscape, and
complexity of our market.
Benefits: Accurate
market planning, financial forecasting, and communicating of market plans to
employees, press, analysts and customers.

Strategies Role:
Define our market
across multiple dimensions, mapping competitors, positions and market-force

SO from this above strategy we set
our market size, as mushroom is new product in our country its market size is
not big it is in a small size now .The higher class people & middle class
people are in this market size.

§  The size of the market

    • Total
    • Addressable
    • Segment

§  Market geography

§  Technology market divisions

§  Market disciplines of customers

§  Competitive landscape

§  Key product and economic trends in
the market

§  Channel realities and options

7.0 Marketing of Mushroom Product

Market characteristics defined the market attractiveness. There are some
characteristics of market that we to consider running our business:

  • Market growth
  • Social,
    political, regulatory and environmental factors
  • Capital
  • Seasonal
  • Competitors
  • Market size
  • Vital
    industrial ability
  • Industry
    success and proceed

Except these characteristics I found some new characteristics for
mushroom specially—

of lower level customer is higher than Mid and high level customer. 

food lover customers

are unconscious about their health.

are price sensitive. 

Geographical Scope of the Market

In Dhaka
selected market areas will be:

  • Banani
  • Uttara
  • Gulshan
  • Boshundhara.
  • Dhammondi.

Chittagong, the market areas will be:

§  Agrabad

§  Nasirabad


There are two categories of customers
.they are —

Big Supplier

Small Supplier

Now this big supplier distribute our firms mushroom to

Restaurants like—


Small Supplier are Distribute our
product to different –



8.0 Competition

Local market:

Mushroom Bangla,

Estan Plaza, Dhaka.

Asia Mushroom,

Marufs Mushroom,


Green House Mushroom,

19/2,Mirja mention, Mirpur

These firms are now competitor as the
market is small & it is a new product for our country so competition is not
so much acquit.

9.0 SWOT
SWOT analysis is a technique
commonly used in business circles to assist in identifying strategic issues for
a company or organization. If the analysis is to be applied to visualization
products some modifications to the technique will be required, however,
potentially it will yield useful information about the future viability of
various systems.

The predictive capabilities of the
technique come about from the consideration of each system’s Strengths (S)
and Weaknesses (W) in the context of the environment which is seen to
present Opportunities (O) and Threats (T). The intention is to
determine how each system will fare in the light of changes taking place around
it. It accomplishes this by assessing an organizations strengths (what an
organization can do) and weaknesses (what an organization cannot do) in
addition to opportunities (potential favorable conditions for an organization)
and threats (potential unfavorable conditions for an organization).

Strengths and weaknesses are the internal factors of our
business. Opportunities and threats are external factors that affect our

By SWOT analysis first we have to
find out our strengths and weaknesses of our business, and then we have to give
high importance of our weaknesses to overcome those. For the future expansion
we must find out our opportunities of our business that make our business more
profitable. And at last but not the least we must find out our threats that
comes form outside and we must alert from that threats.

Please Press for STRENGTHS Press for WEAKNESSES Press for OPPORTUNITIES Press for THREATS


to achieving the goal


achieving the goal


facts/ factors of the organization


that are good now, maintain them, build on them and use as leverage


that are bad now, remedy, change or stop them.


facts/ factors of the environment in which it


that are good for the future, prioritize them, capture them, build on them
and optimize


that are bad for the future, put in plans to manage them or counter them


Consider our strengths relative to
our competitors and from our customers’ perspective.

First, most of the members of this
organization are Microbiologist and they know better how to deal microbes than
anybody else.

Second, it bundles valuable features
not found other companies.

Third, paradigm’s mushroom can get
more acceptances because of the professional affiliation of the members.

Fourth, can deliver the product in
lower price


customer-focused SWOT may also uncover a firm’s potential weaknesses. Although
some weaknesses may be harmless, those that relate to specific customer needs
should be minimized if at all possible. In addition, a focus on a firm’s
strengths in advertising is promotion is important to increase awareness in
areas that a firm excels in. This method not only evokes a positive response
within the minds of the consumer, but pushes the weaknesses further from the
decision making process. So we can do-

Lack of Brand awareness and Image. Secondly, Already the market is grasped
by other company. So at first we have to penetrate the market which is
difficult. Thirdly, In addition
there are broad macro environmental factors that effect paradigm’s product.

Weaknesses should also be considered
from an internal and external viewpoint. It is important that listing of a
firm’s weaknesses is truthful so that they may be overcome as quickly as
possible. Delaying the discovery of weaknesses that already exist within a
company will only further hurt the firm. A well-developed listing of weaknesses
should be able to answer a few questions.

The role
of the internal portion of SWOT is to determine where resources are available
or lacking so that strengths and weaknesses can be identified. From this, the
marketing manager can then develop marketing strategies that match these
strengths with opportunities and thereby create new capabilities, which will
then be part of subsequent SWOT analysis. An opportunity is the chance to
introduce a new produce or service that can generate superior returns.
Opportunities can arise when changes occur in the external environment. The
external environmental analysis may reveal certain new opportunities for profit
and growth.

Paradigm can provide Mushroom in the
cheapest way and safer then other company’s product available in the market.
Yet increased competition complicates the situation. Threat is to control the
contamination problem which is very common. It may seem easy for a technical
person but the real condition may differ from the projected one.

Managers who are caught up in
developing strengths and capabilities may ignore the external environment like
threats. A mistake of this magnitude could lead to an efficient organization
that is no longer effective when changes in the external environment prohibit
the firm’s ability to deliver value to its targeted customer segments. These
changes can occur in the rate of overall market growth and in the competitive,
economic, political/legal, technological, or socio cultural environments.
Technological developments may make our offerings obsolete. Market changes may
result from the changes in the customer needs, competitors’ moves, or
demographic shifts. The political situation determines government policy and
taxation structure.

10.0 Production Method
and Equipment

Producing mushrooms is not like raising your usual garden vegetables. But
then, mushrooms aren’t vegetables. Mushrooms are fungi and do not contain
chlorophyll, so while that means they don’t need sunlight; it also means that
they depend on an especially nutritious growing medium.

The first step in producing superior mushrooms such as those grown by
Modern Mushroom Farms is to create an ideal growing medium. White, crimini and
portabella mushrooms all grow well on the same medium. Pasteurized compost made
from sources such as corn cobs, straw, hay, water and nitrogen supplements fill
the trays in which mushrooms grow. At the same time, under laboratory
conditions, mushroom spores are inoculated into sterile grain seeds to produce
spawn that is planted in the compost trays. Once the spawn have produced a
white network of mycelium, the mushroom’s equivalent of roots, the compost is
covered with a thin layer of peat moss, or casing, and temperature (about 60
degrees F) and humidity in the mushroom house are controlled until tiny white
rounds poke through the peat moss. This stage is called pinning and the farmer
knows that in 17 to 25 days (3 to 7 days longer for portabellas), the mushrooms
will be ready to harvest. The whole cycle takes from 9 to 12 weeks and since
all the farming is done in dark, climate-controlled buildings, we can have
fresh-from-the-farm mushrooms all year round.

Some of the specialty mushrooms prefer slightly different growing

need a little more humidity and
fresh air than the white and crimini mushrooms. The mixture of compost and
oyster-mushroom spawn is placed in long, tubular plastic bags punched with
holes and hung up or set in racks so air will circulate around them. After
about 14 days the mushrooms poke through the holes and can be harvested.

were traditionally grown on oak
logs. These days they are produced by a process similar to that used for oyster
mushrooms except oak sawdust is used in place of compost.

are grown in plastic bottles on a
substrate of corn cobs, wheat bran and soy bean meal. They are held at 45
degrees F and harvested after about 90 days.


Unit cost

Total cost



Tk. 25000

UV lamp



Water sprayer and accessories



Packaging machine

Tk. 2000


After production method of mushroom–

 Cultivated fresh mushrooms are in
good supply year round. Look for firm, unblemished caps. The mushroom’s surface
should be free from moisture but not look dry. Avoid mushrooms with any sign of

Always refrigerate mushrooms. Loose mushrooms keep well in paper bags in the
refrigerator. Avoid airtight plastic bags because they will retain moisture and
speed spoilage. Properly stored, fresh mushrooms will keep for five days or

Don’t clean mushrooms until you are ready to use them. To remove any bits of
the peat moss in which they were grown, rinse quickly with cold running water
or wipe the mushrooms with a damp cloth, paper towel or soft brush.

Mushrooms may be cooked whole, sliced or chopped. The stems of shiitake
mushrooms and the root end of portabella stems are often tough and should be
discarded or used to add flavor to sauces and stocks, but all other mushroom
stems can be trimmed and used along with the caps.

Uncooked fresh mushrooms don’t freeze very well, but once they have been
cooked, they can be frozen in small containers for a convenient, ready to use addition
to soups, stews and sauces. Just clean, trim and slice the mushrooms; sauté
them in oil or butter and cool to room temperature. Then, package in airtight
1/2-cup or 1-cup containers and freeze. They may be kept several months and are
best if thawed in the refrigerator before use.

11.0 Recommendation

  • Establishing
    Training centre every Thana level in our Country
  • Need a good and
    effective policy especially for this sector
  • Policy maker’s
    should be honest because most of the time they don’t keep their words.
  • Increasing proper
    loan facilities
  • Motivating people
    for cultivating Mushroom
  • Persuade the people
    of our country to use Mushroom
  • We must inform the
    people of our country about the advantage of using Mushroom.
  • Removing the
    psychological barriers so that people can understand that it`s a very
    delicious, nutritious and 100% Halal food
  • Supplying huge
    amount of Mushroom spawn.

12.0 Conclusion

Edible mushrooms provide a good supplement to
the diet in the form of proteins, carbohydrates, valuable salts and
vitamins. It is mainly the Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE)
that has introduced mushroom cultivation in Bangladesh in recent years.
Cultivation of mushroom has opened a new opportunity of earning extra
income for a good number of small, marginal and landless families. The
greatest advantage for small, landless and marginal farmers is that
mushroom cultivation does not need any land. It can be grown at the
homestead or inside a house. Poor women can have extra income from
cultivating mushrooms. Older and disabled people can also cultivate
mushrooms in their homesteads. RIB was interested to support a research
project on mushroom cultivation as income generation activity for the
poor women of the rural area adjacent to Dhaka city. . This phase of the
project will be devoted to identify the possible marketing points, extent
of market demand, problems of the existing producers with respect to
production and marketing, extent of use of mushroom by different
restaurants and their sources etc.

So, Bangladesh mushroom industry is
consists of above big to little firm. There is a huge prospect of mushroom
cultivation in Bangladesh. It can play an important role in eradicating
malnutrition, one of the main problems of the people, and preventing diseases.
By mushroom cultivation, it is possible to alleviate poverty and providing
employment for educated unemployed, youths, adolescents and women

13.0 Reference

ª Garland, Franklin. (1996) Truffle
Cultivation in North America. Garland Gourment   Mushrooms
and Truffles, Inc.; Hillsborough, NC. p.41

ª Harris, Bob. (1994) Growing Shiitake
Commercially. 2nd Ed. Science Tech Publishers, Madison, Wl. p.72

ª Cooner, Deanna. (2001) Mushroom
farming. Adventures. June-July p. 14-15.

ª Stamets, Paul, and J.S. Chilton.
(1983) the Mushroom Cultivator. Agarikon Press, Olympia, W.A. p. 415.

ª Stamets, Paul. (1993) Growing
Gourment and Medicinal Mushrooms. Ten Speed Press. Berkeley, CA. p. 592.

ª Jones, Kenneth. (1995) Shiitake: The
Healing Mushroom. Healing Arts Press, Rochester, VT. p.128

ª Anon. (1998): Grower`s business is
‘Mushrooming.’ Small Farm Digest. Winter. p.3

ª Oei, Peter. (2003) Manual on Mushroom
Cultivation: Techniques, Species and Opportunities for Commercial Application
in Developing Countries. TOOL Publications, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. P.592

14.0 Internet




© www.mushroom/information

© www.ohioline.osu

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