2. What Is Climate
3. What Is Climate Change
4. Reason of Climate Change
a) Greenhouse effect
b) Increase in emission of Carbon gases
d) Volcanic eruption
e) Massive population growth
f) Dependency on fossil fuel
5. Effects of Climate Change
a) Average temperature rise
b) High tide
c) Increase in ocean salinity and acidity
d) Extreme weather events
e) Massive tropical cyclone
6. International law to reduce climate change
One of the most define issue of our era is global climate change. It is the biggest threat to the future of life on earth. Rising average temperature, high tide levels, ocean salinity and acidity (pH), wind patterns and extreme weather events including droughts, heavy precipitation, heat waves and the intensity of tropical cyclones like hurricanes and typhoons are some extreme weather events as a result of climate change. So, climate change confronts humanity arguably with the most serious challenge that it has ever faced. The more it is studied it shows that there are some elements of this serious threat. These elements need to be understood to reduce these changes and make things slower as the final outcome will be ‘Catastrophe’ due to these changes.
2. What Is Climate?
Climate is the long term prevalent weather conditions of an area. The general or average weather conditions of a certain region including temperature, rainfall, and wind is called climate.
3. What is Climate change?
Climate change is a long term change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods of that range from decades to millions of years. The change may be in the average weather conditions or a change in the distribution of weather events with respect with an average. These changes may be limited to a specific region or may occur world wide. The definition of climate change given in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is considered best as it is “A change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the global composition of global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.”
Any kind of change has a direct effect and climate change is no different. It affects human civilization. But the changes we talk about are global and different. These changes will bring catastrophe might end human civilization.
The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition Copyright 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2010.
4. Reason of climate change:
Change in global climate has some particular reasons. The main reason of global climate change is increase of Carbon gases in the atmosphere.
a) Greenhouse effect: Certain gases in the atmosphere behave like the glass on a green house, allowing sunlight to enter, but blocking heat from escaping. During day earth becomes hot as it absolves heat and at night time it releases heat. But some carbon gases block the heat and earth can not release heat normally. So, our globe becomes hotter and temperature rises which causes change in climate.
b) Increase in emission of Carbon gases: Carbon gases are heat absolving, such as CO2. Increase of carbon gases in the atmosphere makes earth hotter than normal. So, excessive emission of Carbon gases cause rise of temperature in the environment which is one of the major reason of climate change.
c) Deforestation: Deforestation is one of the major causes of global climate change. Cutting trees is not good for environment as tree consumes CO2from the environment. Deforestation does not help to reduce carbon gases from the environment.
d) Volcanic eruption: Volcanic eruption disposes tons of carbon gases in the atmosphere which is mostly responsible for the increase of global temperature.
e) Massive population growth: Massive population growth is an indirect cause of climate change. People cuts tree, uses fossil fuel and does many other things to fulfill their needs. These activities are not good for environment. So the increase in population means increase in the rate of climate change.
f) Dependency on fossil fuel: People of the globe are highly dependent on fossil fuel. As they have very limited resource on alternative energy source they mostly use fossil fuel as energy source. But fossil fuel is a very high source of emission of Carbon gases.
5. Effects of climate change:
Climate change has severe effect on humanity and life on earth. Day by day our earth is changing and it’s getting a hard place to live on. Climate change is the reason for various natural disasters of recent time. It has made the whole environment system unpredictable.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), . “Working Group I Third Assessment Report.”Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
National Academy of Sciences (NAS). 2001. “Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions. “ National Academies Press. 42 pp.
Cynthia Rosenzweig, Goddard Institute for Space Studies (http://www.giss.nasa.gov/
William Solecki, Hunter College, City University of New York http://www.hunter.cuny.ed
a) Average temperature rise: As a result of climate change the average temperature of the globe has increased. It has made the environment inconsistent and the globe’s season circle has collapsed due to this reason. 1990 was the warmest decade in last 1000 year and in this decade temperature increased almost at straight graph.
b) High tide: As a result of temperature rise ice of south and North Pole will be melted fast and the water will finally reach the ocean. So, the sea level will rise significantly and high tides will become a new problem. Coastal civilizations like SriLanka, Maldives and Fiji will be destroyed. Rising sea level will have sever effect on countries like Bangladesh, Australia, India, Indonesia as most of their land will go under water.
c) Increase in ocean salinity and acidity: Scientists have found oceans are able to absolve some of the excess CO2 released by human activity. So the more CO2 in the atmosphere means the more in the oceans. This will increase the salinity and acidity of sea water.Research show that some of the sea water’s Salinity and acidity will increase about 30% after the end of 21st century.
d) Extreme weather events: Global climate change will bring extreme weather events like ‘Super Storm’. These storms will have wind speed of more than 200 mile and will destroy anything at its way. Global warming will spawn many super storms.
e) Massive tropical cyclone: Climate change will increase the density of tropical cyclone. These cyclones are massive and destructive. Hurricane Katrina is the worst possible example of that in recent time. Economic damage due to Katrina was 81 billion USD and estimated recovery needs more than 200 billion USD. Sometimes tropical cyclone brings high tide and thunder storm.
‘Abdu’l-Bahá, from a Tablet translated from Persian, quoted in a memorandum on “Gaia and Nature,” to the Universal House of Justice from its Research Department of the Baha’i World Centre, 8 June 1992.
See World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland Commission), Our Common Future (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987).
Bouma-Prediger, Steven, For the Beauty of the Earth (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2001) p
6. International law to reduce climate change:
Among the most notable agreements, Copenhagen Accord can be considered as one of the most pragmatic steps towards global climate change. Proper execution of International laws is the most positive and optimistic sides of that summit. But it all depends on the willingness of respective governments, civil societies, citizens etc. how they suppose to reacts pertaining to world climate talks. There are two ways the Accord could help the climate discussions to precede in 2010:
- It could be considered as well directed guidelines to AWGs.Here the working groups’ major concern was to reach on a consensus by world premiers and buzz awaited talk about global climate.
- Alongside with UNFCCC the Copenhagen Accord can play a critical role to formulate climate policy. It can be a broader agreement than UNFCCC because it can bring more countries under a single umbrella.
With regard to its contents, the main elements of the Copenhagen Accord are that:
- Countries officially committed to the 2 degree target. But it didn’t specify this number into GHG emissions (including a peak year).Moreover it also didn’t take into consideration procedures for effort sharing.
- Appendix I states that the Accord will comprise of economy-wide targets for 2020 vowed voluntarily by developed countries by applying a bottom up process. Developed countries will be able to implement individually or jointly quantified emission decrease targets. All these will be Measured, Reported and Verified (MRVed) based on guidelines existing under the UNFCCC. Following the analysis of Egenhofer and Georgiev (2009), the most determined upper limit of the pledges for 2020 submitted before Copenhagen, along with the implementation of the national plans in China and India, would bring the globe towards a 3.2°C increase by 2100 at best.
- Improvement of actions in developing countries will be supported immediately. New, additional, predictable and sufficient sources of funding will be assigned for that. The collective commitment of developed countries is approaching to US$30 billion for the period between 2010-2012.It growing to almost US$100 billion a year in 2020 with balanced share between adaptation and alleviation. It is usually stated that the Copenhagen Green Climate Fund shall be well-known to support projects, programmers, policy and other actions in increasing countries related to improvement. A high level panel will be established to study the contribution of the probable sources of profits.
- A Technology system shall be established by the agreement, which didn’t clarify details about the system or ideas underlying with the term have been provided.
- The relative importance of, as well as interaction between, these three tracks will be decided on near future. On the other hand, even if all of the main emitters support the main result of COP 15, the Copenhagen agreement, there will still be the need for additional discussion. There are, for example, many more opportunities for establishing a more sustainable international improvement course, some of which have been identified by the AWG-LCA and the AWG-KP, that are not recognized in the Copenhagen agreement.
- Low carbon transport systems require an included approach that decrease distances traveled prioritizes low-carbon modes and decreases the carbon-emissions of vehicles. For this reason, technology is not limited to the energy effectiveness of vehicles and bio-fuels but refers to power efficient transport systems as a whole, on top of any size from the local to the national. Sustainable transport is encouraged everywhere.
- The Copenhagen agreement endorses the meaning of carbon markets as a means to get emission reduce but it does not suggest the creation of a sector crediting system. In principle, Parties agree to extra work with the instrument but the future of the Kyoto Protocol is still doubtful and the discussions of the AWG-KP in Copenhagen resulted in progress. It would be helpful for transport as to date there are few CDM transport related projects. Several recommendations have been developed for ways in which barriers to the greater participation of the transport sector in the CDM flexible system could be overcome.
- UNFCCC adopts a law of “common but differentiated tasks.” The parties fixed that:
Ø The biggest share of historical and modern global emissions of greenhouse gases originated mostly in developed countries;
Ø Per capita emissions in developing countries are still comparatively low than developed countries.
Ø The share of global emissions originating in developing countries will suppose to rise to get together social and development necessities.
Egenhofer, Christian and Georgiev, Anton (2009): The Copenhagen Accord – A first stab at deciphering the implications for the EU. CEPTS Commentary, 25 December 2009.
Niklas, Michiel Schaeffer, Claudine Chen, Bill Hare, Katja Eisbrenner, Markus Hagemann, Christian Ellermann
(2009), Copenhagen Climate Deal – How to Close the Gap, Briefing paper, Ecofys & Climate Analytics, 15 December
Ø Require countries to information on national strategies in the field of transport through their National infrastructure.
Ø Build up a sector approach for Sustainable transport.
Ø Implement a sector stop working in a Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action.
Ø Provide Parties with regulation for transport NAMA.
Ø Develop control for Programmed of Activity (PoA) in the transport sector.
Ø Develop approaches for even transport baselines under the CDM
Ø Develop guidance for how both public and private sector transport
Ø Stakeholders can access money for adjustment
Ø Put sector emission decrease goal on a national level
Ø Special transport Nationally Appropriate improvement Action must be developed specially in countries that have a huge share of emissions from the transport sector, otherwise who are likely to in the coming years?
Ø Conduct pilot projects to show climate proofing of transport systems, mostly in cities.
Ø Submit indicators for further combination of the transport sector into National Adaptation policy.
For a more detailed discussion of transport NAMAs see Dalkmann, H., Sakamoto, K., Binsted, A. and Avery, K. (2009b)
Strategies to bring land transport into the climate change negotiations. Discussion Paper. Available from
Potential transport NAMA commissioned by the ADB and IDB.
So what’s next? The challenge that climate change poses to mankind requires the international society to keep on pressing forward and more aware about this crucial issue. The amount of options, alternatives and bracketed text in draft AWG documents demonstrates the large amount of negotiating work that still needs to be done otherwise nothing significant will be achieved. It is also likely that even if an agreement under the UNFCCC could be reached in 2010, there will still be a lot work needed to identify the implementing necessities by 2012 or within a short period of time.
- For the comprehensive resource on climate change and other environmental topic, the author recommends the world resource website at Http://www.wri.org. Further information can be found at the web site of the international environment forum.
- Predigest, Steven, For the beauty of earth (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2001) P-138.
- Details about previous work done in compost on environment ethics can be found at www.unesco.org/compost.
- For the overview of the work done in the united nation on climate change, the following website can be consulted:www.un.org/climate change.
- Audouze, J. 1997 the ethics of energy.
- IPCC, 2007b climate change 2007: Impacts, Adaption and Vulnerability. Summary for policymakers. Published by the IPCC.
- Lomborg, B. 2008 cool it. The skeptical environmentalists guide to global warming. Vintage books, NEW WORK.
- Adam Babich, the apolitical law school clinical L. Rev. 447(2005).
- The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.. http://unfccc.int/essential_background/convention/background/items/1353.php. Retrieved 15 November 2005. “Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner”.
- Executive Board of UNESCO, 2008 Report by the Director-General on a
- Refined UNESCO Strategy for Action on Climate Change. Document 180 EX/16.
- Anon (2003) New Scientist, Hot Topics; Climate Change
- Antonio Regalado (2003), Global Warming Skeptics are facing Storm Clouds. The Wall Street Journal, July 31
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- Crowley TJ Lowery T How warm was the Medieval Warm Period? A comment on “Man-made” versus Natural Climate Change Atmospheric Biology 29
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- Lomborg, Bjørn, (2001) the skeptical environmentalist: measuring the real state of the world Cambridge University Press.
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