Recruitment and selection Procedure of Medicon Laboratories Ltd.
Human Resource Management (HRM) involves all management decisions and practices that directly affect or influence the people or human resources, who work for the organization. HRM is comprised of the staffing, development, motivation and maintenance functions. Each of these functions, however, is affected by external influences. HRM is responsible for the people dimension of the organization. It is responsible for hiring competent people, training them, helping them perform at high levels, and providing mechanisms to ensure that these employees maintain their productive affiliation with the organization. Human resource is the blood stream of an organization. An ideal HRM lies with the proper function of a HRM manager who deals with the human workforce- a vital and sensitive factor of the organization. without appropriate and continuous support of this valuable work force, machines remain idle, raw materials lie stacked, money gets tied up, bank interest goes up and turmoil may arise in the operating areas that make an organization sick and disreputable and eventually it may bankrupt very soon.
Human Resource Planning is the process by which an organization ensures that it has the right number and kinds of people capable of effectively and efficiently completing tasks that directly support the company’s mission and strategic goals. Training is always required for the utmost development of one’s utmost capacity. An ideal and well groomed Human Resources Department (HRD) contributes the employees learn and aware of the job concerned. The steps in the Human Resource planning process include mission formulating, establishing corporate goals and objectives, assessing current human resources, estimating supplies and demand for labor, and matching demand with current supplies of labor. The two outcomes of this process are recruitment and decruitment. A human resource information system is useful for quickly fulfilling human resource management information needs by tracking employee information and having that information readily available when needed.
HRM contributes in determining the number and types of people an organization needs. Job analysis is a systematic exploration of the activities surrounding and within a job. It defines the job’s duties, responsibilities and accountabilities. Job descriptions are written statements of what the job holder does (duties and responsibilities), job specifications identify the personal characteristics required to perform successfully on the job, and job evaluation uses job analysis information to establish a compensation system. Job analysis permeates all aspects of HRM in that almost everything that HRM does relates directly to the job analysis process. Recruiting, selection, compensation and performance appraising, employee training and career activities, and safety and health requirements, for example, are affected by the job analysis, which identifies necessary skills, knowledge and abilities.
The Multifaceted Nature of Job Analysis
Source: David A .Decenzo, Stephen P. Robbins. Fundamental of Human Resources Management. 8th Edition .Page-139
Recruiting is the process of discovering potential candidates for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies. Or, from another perspective, it is a linking activity that brings together those with jobs to fill and those seeking jobs. the two goals of recruiting are to generate a large pool of applicants and to provide enough information for individuals to self select out of the process. A good recruitment program should attract the qualified and discourage the unqualified. Meeting this dual objective will minimize the cost of processing unqualified candidates.
Selection activities follow a standard pattern, beginning with an initial screening interview and concluding with the final employment decision. The selection process includes the following steps.
Þ Initial screening interview.
Þ Completion of the application form.
Þ Employment tests.
Þ Comprehensive interview.
Þ Background investigation.
Þ Conditional job offer.
Þ Physical or medical examination. and
Þ The permanent job offer.
In the discrete selection process, each step acts as a stand-alone predictor-failing to pass any of these discrete steps means disqualification from the job. In the comprehensive approach, candidates go through most of the steps before a final decision about them is rendered.
Recruitment and selection Needs:
Source: K. Aswathappa. Human Resource and Personnel Management. 3rd Edition, Page 113)
Medicon Laboratories Ltd. (MLL) recruits and selects its working force, employees from outside and from the internal resources on promotion to run its business smoothly as per its requirements. MLL also recruits and selects manpower from the employee referrals and recommendations.
The HRM function and HRD Profession have undergone tremendous change over the past 20-30 years. Many years ago, large organizations looked to the “Personnel Department,” mostly to manage the paperwork around hiring and paying people. More recently, organizations consider the “HR department “as playing a major role in recruitment and selection, training and helping to manage people so that people and the organization are performing at maximum capability in a highly fulfilling manner. In spite of the availabilities of enormous amount of modern scientific devices and advanced technological units, people remain the most significant factor in the business in constant motion.
Work force management has become increasingly complex. The heritage and growth of the HRM profession is closely linked to people’s attitudes about work, the evolution of employment-related laws and sociological trends. Therefore it is only natural that most of the organizations are contributing ample effort for the recruitment and selection of the most eligible candidates. The organizations that have achieved success in every edge of business, obviously have attracted the right persons, kept them in the right places and motivated them constantly.
The Human Resources Management (HRM) function includes a variety of activities, and key among them is deciding what staffing needs you have and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high performers, dealing with performance issues and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. Activities also include managing your approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies.
Recruitment and selection process (RSP) is one of the most important elements in a successful human resource management program, because it is a process by which an organization ensures that it has the right number and kinds of people, at the right place, at the right time, capable of effectively and efficiently those tasks that will help the organization achieve its overall strategic objectives. To ensure that appropriate personnel are available to meet the requirements set during the strategic planning process, human resource managers engage in employment planning. The purpose of this planning effort is to determine what HRM requirements exist for current and future supplies and demands for workers. HRM must find ways to ensure that employees are retained. Frequently called employee retention, HRM must lead the way to help managers understand that they play a critical role in retaining workers, that their action, can go a long way to either stimulate or reduce employee turnover. That’s because it’s estimated that about three-fourths of the reasons employees quit their jobs and leave organizations are within the control of manages, such as being honest with employees, giving then challenging work, and recognizing them for their performance.
This internship report is an integral part for the partial fulfillment of the degree of masters of Business Administration with a major in HRM. The report deserves three (03) credit marks. It is indeed a survey type work of the post theoretical aspects.
The HR field today recognizes the dynamic relationship between strategy, people, technology and the process that drive organizations. Now the organizations have recognized the importance of human resource considerations in long-range strategic planning. Today, the human resource professional is charged with optimizing employee skills, matching people to jobs and maximizing the potential of employees as valuable resources.
For the existence of an organization, skilled, effective and efficient manpower is a must. Accumulation of a number of valuable attributes in personnel is possible when he achieves proper, rational and age old training substantially regarding his job. He will generate his attained knowledge and expertise in the organization with spontaneous and willful intention that will derive from his rationality and discretion as well as being not biased by anything. The improper recruitment and selection vigorously affects the smooth and efficient operation of any organization, even it may bring a calamity for the organization.
Successful employment planning is designed to identify an organization’s human resource needs. Once these needs are known, an organization will want to meet them. The company must acquire the people necessary to ensure the continued operation of the organizations. successful selection activities entail a lot of careful planning and thoughts. The selection process is composed of steps, each of which provides decision makers with information that will help them predict whether an applicant will be a successful job performer. The best possible qualified and eligible applicants will receive a fair remuneration package as well as proper favor for each vacancy. On the other hand, an organization should not retain over qualified personnel without increasing scope of work and personnel procedures followed by Medicon Laboratories Ltd. A dynamic skilled and efficient Human Resources Department (HRD) of an Organization is a must to continue the smooth and effective operation as well as to achieve the appropriate goals of the organization successfully.
The principal objective of this internship report is to apprehend and illustrate the recruitment and selection procedure (RSP) in the context of medicon Laboratories Ltd. (MLL) and its impact on the organization.
i) To analyze & review existing recruitment and selection procedure of Medicon Laboratories Ltd. (MLL)
ii) To determine how effectively and efficiently MLL’s recruitment and selection procedure is operated.
iii) To find out the limitations of MLL in the field of recruitment and selection.
iv) To recommend for the continuous improvement of existing recruitment and selection procedure of MLL.
v) To determine how the management of MLL facing various challenges during recruiting & selecting right candidates.
The study is based on both primary and secondary data following the quantitative methodology.
Primary data was collected through mailing the questionnaires and direct interviewing regarding,
Ø Existing Recruitment and selection procedure (RSP) .
Ø Properness of the RSP.
Ø Implementation of the RSP.
Ø Necessity of the RSP.
Ø Consequence of the implementation of the RSP.
Secondary data was covered by various books, publications, journals and reports.
Scope of Limitations
¨ The allotted time frame of the study is inadequate.
¨ Secondary data is not always helpful.
¨ Information is not always available.
¨ Lack of proper knowledge and experience.
Data Collection Technique
Data Collection Technique was accomplished through Random Sampling method.
¨ Physical observation of the official records.
¨ Direct interviewing.
¨ Questionnaires mailing.
All the accumulated data were processed by computer programs within a specified time-frame and the entire report was prepared successfully.
|1||Discussion with the honorable supervisor about the internship Report.|
|2||Designing, pre-testing and finalization of the Questionnaires.|
|3||Primary Data Collection.|
|4||Secondary Data Collection.|
|6.||Compilation of Draft Internship Report.|
|7||Submission of Draft Internship Report to the supervisor for suggestion and comments.|
|8||Submission of Final Internship Report.|
About Medicon Laboratories Ltd.
Self interest should not be the sole aim but it should be in its own way to make a liberal and generous contribution towards social welfare to satisfy man by supplying a good quality of drugs at fair prices is the motto of medicon Laboratories Ltd. (MLL). MLL is an Iso 9001:2000 certified Pharmaceutical Company started its journey since 1984. Right from its inception it has been engaged in the field of production of high quality and high tech drugs and medicines. It staved its commercial production will only seven (07) Products. The company achieved enviable reputation and respect since then and the total number of manufactured products now stands at about 100. The company operates through its Factory and Head office in Dhaka, Bangladesh for manufacturing and marketing of the products. The facilities are equipped with ideal machineries and equipments, essential for producing best quality drugs and medicines suitable for catering to local and international market demand.
Professionally trained and experienced management personnel duly assisted by a skilled work force of approximately 600 persons are behind the management of medicon laboratories Ltd.
The quality and technological requirements are not compromised. MLL operates on the concept that scientific development and technical skill add margin to their contribution. It is therefore possible to carry out a high profile job at the very competitive price.
The factory is managed by highly qualified and technical personnel strictly following the GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice). A highly qualified experienced and dedicated team of professionals form a formidable bastion at medicon Laboratories Ltd to ensure an uninterrupted flow of goods and services to the customers with latest information. Now the company has come to a position where it proudly claims itself as one of the leading pharmaceutical companies of the country with all the modern facilities of manufacturing medicine in different dosage formulations like Tablet, capsule, oral liquid, Dry Powder, oral saline, cream & Ointment. Recently MLL has launched the Animal Health Division which is a sophisticated and separate department. under this division, the company is manufacturing a number of veterinary products like premix powder, liquid, and Bolus etc.
MLL has already achieved its affiliation and membership from the following authority.
Ø Bangladesh Drug Administration- BDA.
Ø Federation of Bangladesh Chamber of Commerce & industries- FBCCI.
Ø Dhaka Chamber of Commerce & Industries-DCCI.
Ø Bangladesh Aushad Shilpa Samity-BASS.
Medicon Laboratories Ltd achieved the ISO 9001:2000 certificate in June 2004, for its quality management system for product Development, Procurement, Production, Quality Assurance, Marketing, Sales and Distribution of Pharmaceutical products. Moody International France has assessed the company and found in compliance with all the required quality standards of ISO.
Administrative Structure & Organogram:
One Managing Director and three Directors constitute the top management of medicon laboratories Ltd (MLL). They are intern assisted by the professional staff and associates in the different fields. All the members have considerable experiences in their respective field of operation. The corporate information of the company is stated below:
a) Name of the Company : Medicon Laboratories Ltd. (MLL)
b) Status : Private Limited Company.
c) Year of Establishment : 1984
d) Company Registration No: 148 & 402/ 1984
e) Nature of Business : Manufacturing and Marketing of Pharmaceutical Drugs and medicines.
f) Commercial Production : 1985
g) No of Products : 102
h) Mailing Address : Shilpa Plot No. 17/A-1, Block-D, Section-10, Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
i) Telephone No : 8060123, 9554901
j) Fax No : 88-2-9567621
k) E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
l) Contact Person : Mr. Md. Nurul Huda, Managing Director.
The Organizational structure of MLL is outlined in the following Organogram.
Medicon Laboratories Ltd. Dhaka
Range of Services:
Medicon Laboratories Ltd (MLL) started its commercial production with only seven (07) Products. The company achieved enviable reputation and respect since then and the total number of manufactured products now stands at about 100. For the past twenty four (24) years, MLL has been providing the highest quality of products and services to its honorable customers with a reasonable cost. MLL strictly maintains the ethical standard in all its function and follow WHO- GMP right from procurement to reaching of finished goods and to the ultimate consumers.
Now the company has come to a position where it proudly claims itself as one of the leading pharmaceutical companies of the country with all the modern facilities of manufacturing medicine in different dosage formulations like tablet, Capsule, oral liquid, Dry Powder, Oral Saline, Cream & Ointment. Recently MLL has strengthened its services through launching the animal Health Division. This is a sophisticated and separate department. Under this division, the company is manufacturing a number of quality veterinary products like premix powder, liquid & Bolus dosage form.
Medicon Laboratories Ltd. (MLL) has dreamt to cross the boundary of Bangladesh by its quality products and as such it took astute initiative to export its products abroad. After having significant success in local market, MLL started exporting in neighboring countries. MLL already entered in the Myanmar market and obtained registration of 15 products. In Srilanka a good number of products are likely to be registered within a short period of time.
Medicon with its noble objective of “A Healthy life For Tomorrow” will continue its efforts for serving the mankind by providing safe, effective and high quality medicines in the days ahead.
Recruitment & Selection Procedure of medicon Laboratories Ltd
There is no organized and separate Human Resources department in Medicon Laboratories Ltd. (MLL) now Manager, HR & Admin. Works under Director, Administration and F & A. These are some limitations that may arise problems for the implementation of effective manpower planning and proper recruitment and selection procedure. The level of practicing HR Policies is moderate. At present the entire recruitment and selection procedure of MLL is done by the Director, Admin and F& A along with his colleagues with the prior approval of the managing Director. As MLL is a manufacturing organization, it requires the personnel of technical field at a large scale of its total manpower.
Concept & Theoretical Aspects of Recruitment & Selection Procedure
Recruitment & selection Procedure:
Concepts & theoretical Aspects
Recruitment and selection procedure performs a great role for the smooth operation of an organization. Recruitment follows HR planning and goes hand in hand with the selection process by which organization evaluates the suitability of candidates for various jobs. Without accurate planning, organizations may recruit the wrong number or type of employees. Without successful recruiting to create a sizable pool of candidates, even the most accurate selection system is of little use. One of the key issues in recruitment philosophy is whether to promote largely from within the organizations or to hire from the outsides for vacancies at all levels. A second aspect of recruitment philosophy concerns where the emphasis is: on merely filling vacancies or on hiring for long-term careers. A short-term view may emphasize filling vacancies quickly, where as a longer-term view may tolerate delay in the interests of finding just the right people to bring in for the long haul. A third aspect of recruitment philosophy concerns depth of commitment to seeking and hiring a diverse range of employees. A fourth aspect of recruitment philosophy is whether applicants are viewed as commodities to be purchased or as customers to be wooed. Organizations that adopt a marketing orientation with respect to recruiting will spend substantial time and money to determine what their customers (potential applicants) want and to tailor their recruiting practices and messages to various segments of the market. A fifth aspect of recruitment philosophy has ethical overtones, in terms of fairness and honesty in the recruitment process.
Ø An organization deserves the right to select its staff on the basis of qualification among the candidates.
Ø The organization is liable to prove the validity & job relatedness of the selection device that may have adverse impact on protected groups.
Ø Alternative selection process has less adverse impact when feasible in its operation.
Recruiting is the process by which organizations locate and attract individuals to fill job vacancies. Most organizations have a continuing need to recruit new employees to replace those who leave or are promoted, to acquire new skills, and to permit organizational growth. Recruiting is an even more important activity when unemployment rates are low and economic growth is strong, as firms compete to attract the qualified employees they need to succeed. The company must acquire the people necessary to ensure the continued operation of the organization. It (Recruiting) is the process of discovering potential candidates for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies. or, from another perspective, it is a linking activity that brings together those with jobs to fill and those seeking jobs.
Sources of Recruitment
Deciding whether the position is to be filled internally or externally is often an early task in recruitment planning for a specific vacancy. In some cases, there is no decision to be made. For instance, entry-level jobs must be filled externally, but for other positions, the company’s policy or union contract may require that internal sources be used first. Most organizations use a mixture of internal and external sources promoting from within when qualified employees are available and recruiting from external sources when new skills are needed or growth is rapid. Recruiting is more likely to achieve its objectives if recruiting sources reflect the type of position to be filled.
Recruitment process is generally accomplished by searching two sources. These are.
1) Internal source.
2) External source.
Many large organizations attempt to develop their own low level employees for higher positions. These promotions can occur through an internal search of current employees who have bid for the job, been identified through the organization’s human resource management system, or even been referred by a fellow employee.
In addition to looking internally for candidates, organizations often open up recruiting efforts to the external community. these efforts include,
Ø Advertisement: One goes for advertisement in the daily newspapers, professional journals and even internet when he does not recruit a candidate from the internal source.
Ø Unsolicited Applicants: Unsolicited applications, whether they reach the employer by letter, e-mail, telephone, or in person, constitute a source of prospective applicants. Although the number of unsolicited applicants depends on economic conditions, the organization’s image, and the job seeker’s perception of the types of jobs that might be available, this source does provide an excellent supply of stockpiled applicants.
Ø Employment Exchange: Government and autonomous bodies sometimes exchange their employees on deputation that fulfills the recruitment of semi-skilled or unskilled employments.
Ø Employee Referrals and Recommendation: Oneof the better sources for individuals who will perform effectively on the job is a recommendation from a current employee. Employee referrals also may receive more accurate information about their potential jobs. Employee deferrals are an excellent means of locating potential employees for hard-to-fill positions.
Ø Educational Institute: Some organizations collect their personnel from the various educational institutes of good academic background.
Ø Job Fair: A group of organization arranges a job fair in a particular day, time and venue in a body to collect the applications from the potential applications to fulfill their vacancies.
Ø Executive search Firm: Type of private employment agency specializing in middle and top management placements.
Ø Walks-in : Catching the potential candidates within a short period of time. Employer recruits the employees directly through a test in the interview board.
Ø Out Source: Now-a-days out source employment is prevalent in case of lower ranking placement of an organization. e.g. The employment of driver, peon etc.
Though there is no organized HR policy in Medicon Laboratories Ltd, the company seeks both internal and external sources in the case of recruitment and selection of new employees.
Factors that affect Recruiting efforts.
Although all organizations will, at one time or another, engage in recruiting activities, some do so more than others. obviously size is one factor; an organization with 100,000 employees must recruit continually. so, too, must fast food firms, smaller service organizations, and firms that pay lower wages. certain other variables will also influence the extent of recruiting. Employment conditions in the local community influence how much recruiting takes place. The effectiveness of past recruiting efforts will show itself in the organization’s historical ability to locate and keep people who perform well. Working conditions and salary and benefit packages also influence turnover and, therefore the need for future recruiting. Organizations not growing, or those actually declining, may find little need to recruit. On the other hand, growing organizations will find recruitment a major human resource activity.
Recruitment efforts are a challenge, even in the growing companies. Quality workers are becoming harder to locate. Unemployment in the new millennium, although fluctuating, is still relatively low. Therefore, HRM must develop new strategies to locate and hire individuals possessing the skills the company needs.
Recruitment refers to the process of identifying and attracting job seekers so as to build a pool of qualified job applicants. When a vacancy occurs and the recruiter receives authorization to fill it, the next step is a careful examination of the job and enumeration of the skills, abilities and experience needed to perform the job successfully. Existing job analysis documents can be very helpful in this regard. In addition, the recruitment planner must consider other aspects of the job environment, for example, the supervisor’s management style, the opportunities for advancement, pay and geographic location –in deciding what type of candidate to search for and what search methods to use. After carefully planning the recruiting effort, the recruiter uses one or more methods to produce a pool of potentially qualified candidates.
A firm can generate candidates internally, from among its present employees who desire promotion or transfer, or externally, from the labor market. The organization then screens the candidates, evaluates some of them more thoroughly, and offers the best the position. Throughout the recruitment process, the organization attempts to “Sell” itself to the more promising candidates-that is, to convince them that the organization is a good place to work and that it offers what they want in the way of both tangible and intangible rewards.
Candidates searching for an employer go through a parallel set of activities-first acquiring occupational skills and experience, next searching for job openings through a variety of methods, and then applying for jobs that appear to be a suitable match for their qualifications. As the process continues applicants attempt to “Sell” organizations on their abilities while at the same time collecting information that allows them to evaluate companies and jobs. Eventually, they decide to accept or reject job offers.
Figure: An overview of the recruitment process from the perspectives of the organization and the candidate.
Recruiting goals & Priorities
Ø Attract large numbers of applicants.
Ø Attract highly qualified applicants.
Ø Attract applicants willing to accept offers.
Ø Fill vacancies quickly.
Ø Fill vacancies at minimal cost.
Ø Hire people who perform well.
Ø Hire people who will stay with the organization.
Ø Generate positive public relations.
Evaluation and Benchmarking of Recruitment
A firm should evaluate its recruitment process along with all its other human resource management activities. Collecting appropriate evaluation measures on past recruiting efforts can help an organization to predict the time and budget needed to fill future openings identify the recruiting methods that yield the greatest number or the best quality of candidates, and evaluate the job performance of individual recruiters. Benchmarking against similar firms can also be informative. The granddaddy of all recruiting evaluation measures is cost per hire, though speed of filling vacancies is also an important measure.
Philosophies of Recruiting
A Philosophy of recruiting is an attempt made to enhance the effectiveness of the recruitment process by matching the needs of the organization to the needs of the applicants, two approaches are available to bring about this match. They are,
1. Realistic Job preview (RJP), and
2. Job compatibility Questionnaire (JCQ).
1. Realistic Job Preview (RJP)
Realistic Job Preview (RJP) is a selection device that allows the job candidates to learn negative as well as positive information about the job and organization. The primary purpose of any selection device is to identify individuals who will be effective performers. But it is also in an interviewer’s best interest to find goods prospects, hire them, and have them stay in the organization. Therefore, part of selection should be concerned with reducing voluntary turnover and its associated costs. One device to achieve that goal is the realistic job preview (RJP). A realistic job preview may include brochures, films, plant tours, work sampling or merely a short script made up of realistic statements that accurately portray the job. the key element in RJP is that unfavorable as well as favorable information about the job is shared. Although the RJP is not normally treated as a selection device, it should take place during the interview. Also, because it has demonstrated effectiveness as a method for increasing job survival among new employees. Applicants who receive a realistic job preview (as well as a realistic preview of the organization) hold lower and more realistic expectations about the job they will be doing and are better prepared for coping with the job and it’s frustrating elements. RJP also appears to work best for jobs that are more attractive to the individual, resulting in lower turnover rates. Most studies demonstrate that giving candidates a realistic job preview before offering them the job reduces turnover without lowering acceptance rates. Of course, exposing an applicant to RJP may also result in the hiring of a more committed individual.
3. Job Compatibility Questionnaire (JCQ).
The job compatibility Questionnaire (JCQ) was developed to determine whether an applicant’s preferences for work match the characteristics of the job. The job seeker is required to collect information on job factors like absenteeism, turnover and job satisfaction etc. Thus it is administered to jobseekers who have bare idea with the target job under study. The assumption is that JCQ is that the greater the compatibility between an applicant’s preferences for a job and the characteristics of the job as perceived by the job seeker, the greater the probability of employee effectiveness and longer the tenure.
The JCQ is a 400 item instrument that measures job factors. Item cover the following job factors:
Ø Task requirements.
Ø Physical environment.
Ø Customer characteristics.
Ø Peer characteristics.
Ø Leader characteristics.
Ø Compensation preferences.
Ø Task variety.
Ø Job autonomy.
Ø Physical demands and
Ø Work schedule.
Selection is a process of measurement, decision making, and evaluation. The goal of a personnel selection system is to bring into an organization’s individuals who will perform well on the job. A good selection system also should be fair to minorities and other protected groups. To have an accurate and fair selection system, an organization must use reliable and valid measures of job applicants’ characteristics. Successful selection activities entail a lot of careful planning and careful thought. The selection process is composed of steps, each of which provides decision makers with information that will help them predict whether an applicant will be a successful job performer. one way to conceptualize this is to think of each step as a higher hurdle in a race. The applicant able to clear all the hurdles wins the race and the job offer.
Selection activities follow a standard pattern, beginning with an initial screening interview and concluding with the final employment decision. The selection process typically consists of eight steps:
i) Initial screening interview.
ii) Completing application form.
iii) Employment tests.
iv) Comprehensive interview.
v) Background investigations.
vi) Conditional job offer.
vii) Medical or physical examination and
viii) Permanent job offer.
Each step represents a decision point requiring some affirmative feedback for the process to continue. Each step in the process seeks to expand the organization’s knowledge about the applicants background, abilities, and motivation, and it increases the information decision makers use to make their predictions and final choice. However, some steps may be omitted if they do not yield useful data, or if the cost of the step is unwarranted. Applicants should also be advised of any specific screening, such as credit checks, reference checking, and drug tests. The flow of these activities is depicted in the following figure.
Interview & Test
Interviewing and testing system is now a days the part and parcel of the HR policy in the case of selection procedure for any organization.
An interview is a procedure designed to obtain information from a person through oral responses to oral inquiries, a selection interview, which is designed to predict future job performance on the basis of applicant’s oral responses to oral inquiries.
Types of interview
Ø Preliminary Interview.
Ø Planned Interview.
Ø Stress Interview.
Ø Patterned Interview.
Ø Non-directive or Free Interview.
Ø Depth Interview.
Ø Panel Interview.
Ø Appraisal Interview.
A test is a sample of a person’s behavior, but some tests are more clearly representative of the behavior being sample than others. A test is a means of obtaining a standardized sample of behavior Tests are standardized in content, scoring, and administration. That is every time the test is given, its questions are identical or, in the case of tests with more than one form, equivalent. The scoring rules are constant. The administration is also the same. All test takers get the same Instructions, have the same length of time to work, and take the test under similar conditions. Because tests are standardized, they provide information about job candidates that is comparable for all applicants.
Types of Tests
Ø Intelligence Test.
Ø Aptitude Test.
Ø Ability Test.
Ø Personality Test.
Ø Achievement Test.
Ø Interest Test.
Ø Polygraph Test.
Ø Honesty Test.
Ø Trade Test.
Ø Thematic Test.
Ø California Psychological inventory test.
Factors Choosing Appropriate Test
Contracts of Employment:
After the job offer in made and the candidates accept the offer, certain documents need to be executed by the employer and the candidate. One such document is Attestation Form. This form contains vital details about the candidate, which are authenticated and attested by him/her , which could be used for future reference.
Another document is Contract of Employment. This document contains the Terms and Conditions of Employment like designation, perks, term of job and so on. The information written in the contracts may vary according to the level of the job.
The main drawback of the contract is that it is difficult to enforce them.
Concluding the Selection Process
The Selection process will not end with executing the employment contract. The step is reassuring the candidates who have not been selected. Such candidates must be told that they were not selected, not because of any serious deficiencies in their personalities, but because their profiles did not match the requirements of the organization.
Evaluation of Selection Process
The broad test if the effectiveness of the selection process is the quality of the personnel hired. An organization must have competent and committed personnel. the selection process, if properly done, will ensure availability of such employees. How to evaluate the effectiveness of a selection programmer? A periodic audit is the answer. Audit must be conducted by the people who work independent of the HR department.
Barriers to Effective Selection
The main objective of selection is to lire people who have competence and commitment. This objective is often defeated due to certain barriers. The barriers to effective selection are.
Perception: The inability to understand others is the most fundamental barrier in selecting the right candidate. Selection demands an individual or a group of people to assess the respective competencies of others with the aim of choosing the right person for the job. But their personal bias may affect their judgment. For example their likes and dislikes about a person’s hairstyle, dress etc. may make them change their decision.
Projection: Error of projection arises when an interviewer expects his own knowledge, skills and values in a candidate. Therefore he is likely to select candidates who resemble him.
Constant error: Such error arises because the interviews of previous candidate unduly influence the interviewer in favour or against the candidate. For instances a qualified candidate may be underrated because the previous candidate was very brilliant.
Leniency: it implies the tendency to assign high scores. It is normally associated with lack of confidence and interest in rating. This may arise due to exaggerated expectation, lack of contact with people and generally rigid personality.
Fairness: Selection requires that no individual should be discriminated on the basis of race, religion, region or gender. But the low number of female employees, discrimination on the basis of age proves the efforts to minimize inequity have not been very effective.
Validity: Validity is supposed to help in predicting the job performance of an incumbent. A validated test helps in differentiating between the employees who will perform and who will not. However it is not an accurate performance and only increases the possibility of success.
Reliability: A reliable method is one that will produce consistent results when repeated in similar situations. But such method may have varying results. A reliable test may fail to predict job performance with precision. It is more to do with consistency.
Pressures: Politicians, bureaucrats, relatives, and friends of the candidate bring pressure on the selectors. Candidates selected due to such compulsions are not the right ones. Such selections are more in case of public sector undertakings.
Data Findings and Analysis
Is there any HR Policy established in your organization?
|1||Yes||7||Here it is seen that 70% employees of medicon laboratories Ltd (MLL). Approved for existing HR policy and 30% of them provided no comments.|
Employee recruitment is made?
* According to the project basis:
|Always||5||Here it is found that employee recruitment is done according to the project basis always 50%, most of the time 20%, sometimes 10%, never 0%, rest 20% not necessarily.|
|Most of the time||2|
*According to the HR Planning.
|Always||6||Here it is found that employee recruitment is done according to the HR Planning always 60%, most of the time 20%, sometimes 10%, never 0%, & rest 10% not necessarily.|
|Most of the time||2|
Is there any specific job analysis in this organization?
|1||Yes||6||Here we find that 60% employees of MLL agreed for having specific job analysis, 10% for non existing and rest 30% provided no comments in this regard.|
What are the sources of employment in your organization?
|Internal source||3||Here it is seen that sources of employment is internal 30%, external 50% and both for 20%.|
Who demands requisition for employment?
|Dir. Admin & HR||3||Here We find that employee requisition is made by Dir. Admin & HR 30%, Project Supervisor 50% and rest 20% by other authorities.|
How do you know about job vacancy in this organization?
|News paper||4||Here it is found that employees of this organization were informed regarding the job vacancy in this organization by newspaper 40%, online 30%, & proper channel 30%.|
What tests are usually made administered during selection of a candidate in your organization?
|Primary Interview||2||Here we can find that for selecting employees, MLL goes for taking primary interview 20%, formal interview 30%, written test 40%, & rest 10% employees provided no comments.|
Is there any ‘Induction Training’ & ‘Orientation placement” Program for the new employees?
|Commonly for all levels||7||From the data, we can find that regarding ‘Induction Training’ & ‘ Orientation placement’ program for the new employees, the existing employees of MLL say that the organization goes for it commonly for all levels 70%, sometimes 20% and rare 10%.|
How are the employees attracted to join in and to continue their serving to the organization?
|Working environment||3||Here we find that replying the question, 30% employees emphasize on working environment, 20% on high benefit, 20% on welfare facilities, 10% on job status,10% on Training facilities & rest 10% on low stress.|
Do you think the recruitment and selection procedure of your organization is proper?
|1||Yes||6||Here it is seen that in this organization, employees approved for having proper recruitment and selection procedure 60%, not maintaining 20% and rest 20% provided no comments in this regard.|
After thorough observation of various concepts, theories, datas, findings and analysis, a significant number of recommendations have been brought out. A few of them are stated below:
Þ An ideal, organized and independent HRD should be executed.
Þ Recruitment & Selection should be maintained through HRD.
Þ An ideal HR code of ethics should be implemented.
Þ Implementation and continuation of an ideal service rule.
Þ The Company should have better perception with respect to strengths and weakness of its recruitment and Selection Procedures.
Þ The Company should retain overqualified personnel with increasing scope and length of work and personnel procedures.
Þ For successful predictions, the company should properly follow the entire ‘Validity Analysis’ system during selecting the potential candidates.
An ideal, organized and independent HRD should be executed.
More recently, organizations consider the Human Resources Department (HRD) as playing a major role in staffing, training and helping to manage people so that people and the organization are performing at maximum capability in a highly fulfilling manner. The objective of HRD is to maximize the return on investment from the organization’s human capital and minimize financial risk. It is the responsibility of HRD personnel to conduct these activities in an effective, legal, fair and consistent manner. As there is no organized and separate HRD in Medicon Laboratories Ltd (MLL), there may be chance of improper recruitment and selection in the organization. That may hamper to practice HR activities and ultimately it may defend the goals of the organization. If Medicon goes for set up an ideal and organized HRD, a more good quality effort may offer to its customers. Because a good quality work only derives from a cool, matured, trained and well mannered personnel. That’s why MLL should step forward to establish an ideal and independent HRD for achieving the ultimate goals of the organization.
Recruitment & Selection should be maintained through HRD.
“Right person in the right position” must be a motto of any organization. And to achieve that attribute, an organization must go through proper recruitment and selection procedures under the HRD. In terms of recruitment and selection it is important to consider carrying out a thorough job analysis to determine the level of skills/ technical abilities, competencies, flexibility of the employee required etc. At this point it is important to consider both the internal and external factors that can have an effect on the recruitment and selection of employees. the external factors are that out-with the powers of the organization and include issues such as current and future trends of the labor market, e.g. Skills, education level, government investment into industries etc. On the other hand, internal influences are easier to control, predict and monitor, for example management styles or even the organizational culture. All of these essential recruiting and selecting activities are properly accomplished through HRD. Having no an ideal HR Department, a right and adequate person may not be properly selected for a particular position. Based on a series of examinations HRD steps to recruit and select a better one for the vacant position. An only professional HR personnel knows the various tools and techniques of the ideal recruitment and selection procedure, which may not be available in case of another professional. Medicon Laboratories Ltd., without any hesitation should follow the proper Recruitment and Selection Procedure through an ideal and organized HRD for the ultimate benefits of the organization.
An ideal HR code of ethics should be implemented.
Ethics refers to ‘the principle of conduct governing an individual or a group’, and specifically to the standards you use to decide what your conduct should be. An organization must implement an ideal HR code of ethics for the smooth, congenial and healthy environment inside and outside of the organization. There is no single cause of unethical behaviors at work, so it is not surprising that there is no “Silver Bullet” to prevent it. Creating a culture that encourages employee to do the right thing is a key step, though it’s not so simple to do. Employers must take several steps to ensure ethical behaviors by their employees, and many of these actions are clearly within the realm of HR. HR related activities are a frequent source of ethical questions. HR activities such as staffing and selection, training, reward & disciplinary systems, performance appraisal, workplace aggression & violence, sexual harassment, equity in performance-all these issues should be considered through ethical point of view. Though the concept of HR code of ethics is a new concept in Bangladesh perspective, MLL should step forward to emphasize the necessity of that concept. In the norms of HR code of ethics, it must be written in a booklet by which the entire HR issues and activities will be governed in easy, fair and understandable words.
Implementation and continuation of an ideal Service Rule
Al present MLL has no an ideal and organized Service Rule. The organization provides a general Service Rule to each employee at the time of joining. This Service Rule is not updated. It must be reformed as per demand of the global perspective. The language of the Service Rule must be in a easy, transparent, understandable and short sentenced manner. No sort of ambiguity and complex should be present there. Any person can understand the meaning of every word or sentence easily and clearly. This Service Rule must be designed by the professional bodies in connection with the organization and local as well as international laws & customs. The professional bodies must deserve enormous knowledge on the entire HRM & HRD. From the book of this Service Rule, a person can easily apprehend his or her right and liabilities within the organization. MLL may avoid any confusion, conflict and ambiguity among the employees concerning the right and duties of the employees through executing as well continuing a modern, transparent and judicious Service Rule.
There is no organized and separate Human Resources Department in medicon laboratories Ltd. (MLL) now. Manager, HR & Admin, works under Director, Administration and F& A. These are some limitations that may arise problems for the implementation of effective manpower planning and proper recruitment and selection procedure. The level of practicing HR policies is moderate.
In case of Recruitment and Selection Procedure, Medicon Laboratories Ltd (MLL) follows both, internal and external sources. sometimes MLL selects its employees from the present working force. Usually MLL provides advertisement in the popular daily newspapers, on line and the organization’s notice board. MLL also recruits its manpower from the eminent universities and technical institutions according to the needs of different technical and analytical operations. For the smooth operation & direction as well as research & development activities of the existing and forthcoming products, MLL sometimes recruits some extraordinary calibers from different organizations. Medicon always believes that without harvesting a skilled, disciplined and well mannered work force, it may not be possible to offer a good and praise worthy products and services to the customers. MLL offers lucrative salaries and other incentive packages for the right and adequate persons. A highly qualified, experienced and dedicated team of professionals form a formidable bastion at the MLL to ensure an uninterrupted flow of goods and services to the customers with latest information.
At present the entire recruitment and selection procedure of MLL is done by the Director, Admin. and F&A along with his colleagues with the prior approval of the managing Director .As MLL is a manufacturing organization it requires the personnel of technical field at a large scale of its total manpower.
Many challenges remain for the HR profession. Companies must to maintain ethical standards to match heightened social mores and the greater attention given to the ways they behave and communicate. The diverse composition of the workforce means employees must work to ensure that they reward effort, not prejudices against sex, race, age, national origin, religion or other global differences.
Many companies still have not made their human resource professionals key participants in strategic business decisions. And top management stiff resists sharing decision-making power with employees, who must be given such power if they are to add value to products and services.
While maintaining the special body of HR Knowledge, professionals in human resource management must also be generalists who understand economics, politics, social and cultural trends, technological innovations, changing work values, skill shortages, government mandates in labor laws, affirmative action, health care management, privacy concerns, internation