Report on Client Server

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Definition of client server:

client-server refers to a popular model for computer networking
that utilizes client and server devices each designed for specific purposes.
The client-server model can be used on the Internet as well as local area
networks (LANs). Examples of client-server systems on the Internet include Web
browsers and Web servers, FTP clients and servers, and DNS.

Client and Server

Client/server networking grew in
popularity many years ago as personal computers (PCs) became the common
alternative to older
mainframe computers. Client devices are typically
PCs with network software applications installed that request and receive
information over the network. Mobile devices as well as desktop computers can
both function as clients.

A server device typically stores
files and databases including more complex applications like Web sites. Server
devices often feature higher-powered central processors, more memory, and
larger disk drives than clients.

Peer to peer

Peer to peer: Often referred to simply as peer-to-peer,
or abbreviated P2P, a type of network in which each workstation has
equivalent capabilities and responsibilities. This differs from client/server
, in which some computers are dedicated to serving
the others. Peer-to-peer networks are generally simpler, but they usually do
not offer the same performance under heavy loads.

Peer-to-peer (P2P) network is
created when two or more PCs are connected and share resources without going
through a separate server computer. A P2P network can be an ad hoc connection—a
couple of computers connected via a Universal Serial Bus to transfer files. A
P2P network also can be a permanent infrastructure that links a half-dozen
computers in a small office over copper wires. Or a P2P network can be a
network on a much grander scale in which special protocols and applications set
up direct relationships among users over the Internet.

between client server and peer to peer network:

peer-to-peer and client-server networks connect computers so that resources
such as files and applications can be shared. Peer-to-peer networks connect
computers so that each computer shares all or part of its resources.
Client-server networks have a central computer that holds the data and manages
the resources.


  • Peer-to-peer networks involve two or more
    computers pooling individual resources such as disk drives, CD-ROMs and
    printers. These shared resources are available to every computer in the
    network. Each computer acts as both the client and the server. Each
    computer communicates directly with the other computers and can add or
    remove resources to the network at will.
  • A client-server network involves multiple
    clients connecting to a single, central server. Public data and applications
    are only installed on the server. The client computers connect over the
    network in order to use the resources. Servers often have private user
    directories as well as multiple public directories.


  • In a peer to peer network, a software application
    can be installed on a single computer and shared by every computer in the
    network. They also are cheaper to set up because most desktop operating
    systems have the software required for the network installed by default.
  • Client-server networks tend to have faster
    access speeds because of the large number of clients they are designed to
    support. The clients are allowed to function as workstations without
    sharing any resources. It is easier to upgrade software applications and
    files because they are held on one single computer. System wide services
    can be provided through the server software. Security is enhanced on a
    client server network because the security is handled by the server.
    Client-server networks can be extended in order to handle organizational
    growth. The extent of the growth is only dependent on the hardware


  • Peer-to-peer networks are typically less secure
    than a client-server network because security is handled by the individual
    computers, not on the network as a whole. The resources of the computers
    in the network can become overburdened as they have to support not only
    the workstation user, but also the requests from network users. It is also
    difficult to provide system wide services because the desktop operating
    system typically used in this type of network is incapable of hosting the
  • Client-server networks have a higher initial
    setup cost. It is possible to set up a server on a desktop computer, but
    it is recommended that businesses invest in enterprise-class hardware and
    software. They also require a greater level of expertise to configure and
    manage the server hardware and software.


  • Peer-to-peer networks require a software
    application to be installed on each computer in the network in order for
    the computer to connect and share resources. The application is typically
    installed when the operating system is installed, but needs to be
    configured to be used. If the network contains multiple operating systems,
    there may be a third party application that must be installed.
  • Most of the software required for a
    client-server network is installed only on the server. Many different
    types of software including printer, FTP and security software can be
    installed on a single machine. Client computers only need to have software
    that enables the computer to connect to the server. Often, the client
    computers have this software installed by default.


  • Email by mobile phone
  • Tracking of stock-market prices
  • Sports results
  • News headlines
  • Music downloads

this is the most
popular communication method. Users typically use desktop software to receive,
read and respond to messages. Some users use web-based mail and manage messages
in a web browser like Internet Explorer. The downfall to email communication is
that anyone can send email messages to anyone else if they have (or guess) the
correct email address. This system’s Achilles heel is its simplicity and
universal popularity.

Email accounts are often burdened by spam or unsolicited email. Despite
software developers having created complex spam filters and legislators having introduced
new anti-spam legislation, the problem persists and spam continues to burden
email as a messaging medium.

messaging allows users to “chat” in real time. Users can send text
messages to anyone online and receive instant replies if the user is also
online. The “instant” fad gave way to parental fears as children made
“friends” online. With no way to confirm if “friends” are
who they represent themselves to be, and multiple security holes, instant
messaging has taken a back seat in internet communication.

Online journals
and daily diaries have taken hold. Some blogs are interactive, allowing users
to respond and comment on posts. Locating topic-specific blogs that provide
relevant and interesting content on a daily basis can be a challenge. The
nature of a blog is to contain fresh public content. As our lives become more
complicated blogs are often abandoned, as they require constant updating.


Due to
the security issues and the lack of extensibility, peer-to-peer networks are
used in a home network or in an environment where growth is not expected,
security is not a concern and there is little or no need for system wide
services. Client-server networks should be used in environments where growth is
expected, security is important and faster access times are required.


 A protocol is a special set of rules that
enable communication between two computers. The commonly used protocols are
Transmission Control (TCP/IP), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and Hypertext
Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

information technology, a protocol (from the Greek
protocollon, which
was a leaf of paper glued to a manuscript volume, describing its contents) is
the special set of rules that end points in a telecommunication connection use
when they communicate. Protocols exist at several levels in a telecommunication
connection. For example, there are protocols for the data interchange at the
hardware device level and protocols for data interchange at the application
program level. In the standard model known as Open Systems Interconnection (
there are one or more protocols at each layer in the telecommunication exchange
that both ends of the exchange must recognize and observe. Protocols are often
described in an industry or international standard.


The Hypertext
Transfer Protocol
(HTTP) is a
networking protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information
systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web.
Short for
Transfer Protocol,
the underlying protocol used by the World Wide Web. HTTP defines how messages
are formatted and transmitted, and what actions Web servers and browsers should
take in response to various commands. For example, when you enter a URL in your
browser, this actually sends an HTTP command to the Web server directing it to
fetch and transmit the requested Web page.

Transfer Protocol

File Transfer
(FTP) is a standard network
used to transfer files from one host to another host over a TCP-based network, such as the Internet. FTP
is built on a client-server architecture and utilizes separate
control and data connections between the client and server.[1]
FTP users may authenticate themselves using a clear-text sign-in protocol but
can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it.

The first FTP
client applications were interactive command-line tools, implementing standard
commands and syntax.

the protocol for
files over
Internet. FTP
works in the same way as
for transferring Web pages from a
server to a user’s
browser and
SMTP for
across the Internet in that, like these technologies, FTP uses the
protocols to enable data transfer.

FTP is most
commonly used to
a file from a server using the Internet or to
upload a file to a
server (e.g., uploading a Web page file to a server).


Markup Language
(HTML) is the predominant markup
for web pages. HTML elements are the basic building-blocks of WebPages.

HTML is written in
the form of
HTML elements consisting of tags, enclosed in angle
(like <html>), within the web page content. HTML tags most
commonly come in pairs like <h1> and </h1>, although some tags,
known as
empty elements, are unpaired, for example <img>. The
first tag in a pair is the
start tag, the second tag is the end tag
(they are also called
opening tags and closing tags). In between
these tags web designers can add text, tags, comments, and other types of
text-based content.

The purpose of a web browser
is to read HTML documents and compose them into visible or audible web pages.
The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses the tags to interpret the
content of the page.

Wide Web

The World Wide
(abbreviated as WWW or W3 and commonly known as the
) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents
accessed via the
Internet. With a web browser,
one can view
that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia
between them via

Using concepts
from earlier hypertext systems, British engineer and
Sir Tim Berners-Lee, now Director of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), wrote a
proposal in March 1989 for what would eventually become the World Wide Web.
CERN in Geneva,
Switzerland, Berners-Lee and Belgian computer scientist
proposed in 1990 to use hypertext “… to link and access
information of various kinds as a web of nodes in which the user can browse at
and they publicly introduced the project in December.

Application Protocol

Wireless Application Protocol
(WAP) is a technical standard for accessing information
over a mobile wireless network. A WAP browser is a web browser
for mobile
such as mobile phones (called “cellular
phones” in some countries) that uses the protocol.
Before the introduction of WAP,
mobile service providers had limited opportunities to offer interactive data
services, but needed interactivity to support
applications such as:
Different methods used to
Methods used to communicate on the web. It is important to understand the
nuances and benefits of the different forms.


Instant Messaging:


Social networking:

Social networking is the grouping of individuals into specific
groups, like
rural communities or a neighborhood subdivision, if you will. Although social
networking is possible in person, especially in the workplace, universities,
and high schools, it is most popular online. When it comes to online social
networking, websites are commonly used. These websites are known as social


An Internet
Protocol address
(IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each
device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a
that uses the Internet
for communication.[1]
An IP address serves two principal functions: host or network interface
identification and location addressing.
Its role has been characterized as follows: “
A name indicates
what we seek. An address indicates where it is. A route indicates how to get

Every machine on the Internet­
has a unique identifying number, called an IP Address. A typical IP address
looks like this:

History of internet

History of internet: Before
there was the public internet there was the internet’s forerunner ARPAnet or
Advanced Research Projects Agency Networks. ARPAnet was funded by the United
States military after the cold war with the aim of having a military command
and control center that could withstand nuclear attack. The point was to
distribute information between geographically dispersed computers. ARPAnet
created the TCP/IP communications standard, which defines data transfer on the
Internet today. The ARPAnet opened in 1969 and was quickly usurped by civilian
computer nerds who had now found a way to share the few great computers that
existed at that time.
ARPAnet, the first internet: “The Internet may fairly be regarded as a
never-ending worldwide conversation.” – Supreme judge statement on
considering first amendment rights for Internet users.

a cold war kind of day, in swinging 1969, work began on the ARPAnet,
grandfather to the Internet. Designed as a computer version of the nuclear bomb
shelter, ARPAnet protected the flow of information between military
installations by creating a network of geographically separated computers that
could exchange information via a newly developed protocol (rule for how
computers interact) called NCP (Network Control Protocol).

History of internet according to years of inventions



Arpanet network


The first trans-Atlantic connection and the popularity of emailing

The beginning of TCP/IP

The email client

The PC modem

The Bulletin Board System (BBS)

Spam is born

MUD – The earliest form of multiplayer games


ENQUIRE software

The first emoticon

Arpanet computers switch over to TCP/IP

Domain Name System (DNS)

Virtual communities

Protocol wars

The Internet grows

IRC – Internet Relay Chat

First major malicious internet-based attack

AOL is launched

The proposal for the World Wide Web

First commercial dial-up ISP

World Wide Web protocols finished

First web page created

First content-based search protocol

MP3 becomes a standard

The first webcam

Mosaic – first graphical web browser for the general public

Governments join in on the fun

Netscape Navigator

Commercialization of the internet

Geocities, the Vatican goes online, and JavaScript

First web-based (webmail) service

The term “weblog” is coined

First new story to be broken online instead of traditional media



Internet-based file-sharing gets its roots

SETI@home project

The bubble bursts

Wikipedia is launched

VoIP goes mainstream

MySpace becomes the most popular social network

CAN-SPAM Act puts a lid on unsolicited emails

Web 2.0

Social Media and Digg

Social Media and Digg

2004: “The Facebook” open to college students

"The" Facebook open to college students
launched in 2004, though at the time it was
only open to college students
and was called “The Facebook”; later on, “The” was dropped
from the name, though the URL
still works.

2005: YouTube – streaming video for the masses

launched in 2005, bringing free online video hosting and sharing to the masses.

2006: Twitter gets twittering

launched in 2006. It was originally going to be called
twitter (inspired
by Flickr); the first Twitter message was “just setting up my twttr”.

The biggest innovation of 2007 was
almost certainly the
which was almost wholly responsible for renewed interest in
mobile web
applications and design.