View With Charts And Images
Patterns Construction Process:
Name of the block e.g bodice front,
Grain line on each pattern piece.
Size e.g. 32, 34, 36, 38, etc.
Centre Front or Centre Back.
Style number or code number of
Pattern piece e.g skirt front or
Cutting information – how many
Notches – marks needed to help in
Amount of seam allowance.
2. By Computer (CAD).
A garment sewing
A pattern draft
Steps for computerized marker
Comparison between CAD Marker
Basic Fitted Sleeve
The hem of the trousers also follows the waist
For shorts use the 1/2″ grade.
The above grading diagrams are
Sleeve Design Variations:
There is also no length grade around the bicep. If the design needs the
The shirt sleeve is graded in
The straight sleeve without a cuff is also graded 1/2″ in width.
we can apply these grade areas/figures to any sleeve
Two Piece Sleeve
The two piece sleeve is most
Raglan Two Piece or Darted
The two piece or darted raglan
Bodice with Midriff
The bodice with a midriff is
Have a look at the design problems we identified above. Now, let us see how to
address these problems using design patterns.
We have to address the specifications related to the team and team strategy. As
we discussed earlier, when the game is in progress, the end user can change the
strategy of his team. This clearly means that we need to separate the Team’s
Strategy from the Team that uses it.
Specific Design Problem:“When
the game is in progress, the end user can change the strategy of his team.
need to let the algorithm (Team Strategy) vary independently from clients (in
this case, the Team) that use it.”
- Marks the size, sewing information and codes on
the fabric or worksheet
- Lays out fabric on the cutting table
- Arranges pattern pieces on the fabric
- Marks the pattern outline on the fabric
- Cuts the fabric by hand, with an electric
hand-held cutting machine or by using computer-controlled equipment
- May calculate the amount of fabric needed
- Bundles the pieces of fabric together and
stores them in order of size.
Euro Cad Technology:
delivered as a package containing the PC station and the three major software
Pattern Designer,Euro CAD
Spread &Cut PlannerandEuro CAD Automaker. Please
check the technical data sheet of each individual application to find more Euro
CAD Creative working station can be used as a stand-alone design station or
integrated in a local network, offering a large flexibility to perfectly fit
any user requirements.
For input and output,Euro CAD Creativecan work with a wide range of plotters
and digitizers and can import directly files from Gerber, Lectra and Assyst
native format and also from DXF-AAMA files.
The main software applications Euro CAD package are:
Pattern Designer|Euro CAD
Spread &Cut Planner|Euro CAD Automarker
After the patterns were digitized, the operator introduces in the computer the
grading rules for each piece, using the dimensions from the product’s
specification sheet, sent by the client. However, automatically grading methods
may be used, based on the grading rules previously stored on your computer.
Grading is done easily and with high accuracy. Euro CAD has one of the fastest
and most accurate grading methods. The graded sizes can be simultaneously
displayed on the computer screen and can be aligned in order to be checked in
various ways. According to the product complexity, grading may take 10 to 20
minutes. When using theAssistant
module, the grading can be done in seconds completely automatic.
All patterns can be automatically checked for problems concerning the seam line
length, the matching of notches and the geometrical shapes correspondence.
Patterns can be displayed and checked folded or unfolded, with or without seam
allowance, with the darts closed or opened. All measurements are stored by the
program in a special table called watcher. This watcher is a unique tool, very
useful because it allows the user to supervise the changes on all the sizes of
a piece as they happen, while modifications or grading are done.
In the Euro CAD Spread &Cut Planner application, the operator sets the
quantity of garments ordered by the client for each model, size and fabric, and
some general settings regarding cutting: the length of the spreading table, the
maximum number of sheets in the lay and the fabric width. TheEuro CAD
Spread &Cut Plannerapplication
can automatically generate the most efficient plan for size grouping and
distribution on markers, so a minimal number of markers and lays are needed to
obtain the ordered quantities. This automatic operation takes only few seconds
to complete. The user may choose among several automatic strategies of lay
planning, as well as manual or semiautomatic methods, so the best results are
obtained every time.
Euro CAD stepped over border where the automatic nesting is better than the
manual nesting, both on speed and efficiency.Euro CAD Automakeris based on state of the art
technology and algorithms that will provide excellent nesting results in record
time. It can run full automatic nesting for one individual marker or work
continuously for a list of markers, with no human intervention required. The
usual time needed for an average marker of 8 m is about 3-5 minutes. The
average results in terms of speed and efficiency are considerably higher than
manual nesting. Euro CAD Automakercan perform full automatic nesting on
simple, folded or tubular fabrics, with or without plaids, stripes or textures,
with specific widths and contractions, according to each piece specifications
Euro CAD applications can output the patterns and markers in all major industry
standards: DXF-AAMA, HPGL-PLT, ISO-CUT and RS274D. A large variety of plotters
and cutters are offered with Euro CAD software package, both pen plotters and
inkjet plotters. Some of the pen plotters can also be used as cutters, allowing
the user to cut stock paper patterns.
The markers can be directly sent to an automatic CNC cutter. Euro CAD system is
compatible with most of the automatic cutting machines. The program
automatically calculates the optimal cut path in order to minimize the cutting
time and to increase the cutting accuracy. Special functions are available for
customizing the cutting procedure, depending on each type of fabric.
Measurement of T-shirt:
Length ………………….. 61 cm
Chest …………………… 44 cm
Across shoulder …………. 37.9 cm
Across front ……………… 34.4 cm
Across back ………………35.4 cm
Sleeve length …………… 20.5 cm
Sleeve side length ……… 10.1 cm
Neck width seam ………..17.5 cm
Front neck depth ……….. 8 cm
Back neck depth ………. 2 cm
½ neck opening …………30 cm
Shoulder slope …………..3.3 cm
Shoulder drop …………….1 cm
Use of machine:
Shoulder join =
Rip tack =
Sleeve ham =
Flat lock machine.
Sleeve join =
Side join =
Level attach =
There are three basic methods of grading: cut and spread,
pattern shifting, and computer grading. No one method is technically superior
and all are equally capable of producing a correct grade.
Grading is the process used for creating sized patterns. There are certain
proportional rules and set increments that form the basis of grading. These
rules are set on the basis of analysis on body measurements of the general
population. The clothing firms also help in pattern grading using the
specifications provided by the apparel manufacturers and some of them also
assist the manufacturers in establishing specifications for their product.
The first step in
any grading exercise is to accurately measure your base pattern. Sometimes you
can find the key measurements you need (bust, waist, and hip) on the pattern
envelope. Or you can measure the pattern itself.
Once we have the bust, waist, and hip measurements from both
the pattern and your body, you can address the basic grading dilemma: “How
much do I grade up if the pattern is too small? Or, if it’s too big, then how
much do I grade down?” To establish the overall grade, or the total amount
needed to make the pattern larger or smaller, simply calculate the difference
between the pattern and the body measurements. There are two types of overall
grades: an even grade and an uneven grade.
Four ways to address an uneven grade:
When we have an
even grade, the process of grading is straightforward. Home sewers and
dressmakers often, however, encounter uneven grades, when, for example, a dress
needs to be graded up 2 in. at the bust, but 4 in. at the hip. If the grade is
uneven, there are four ways to use grading to alter the pattern:
1. If the grade is
uneven and you’re sizing up, then you can use an even grade equal to the value
of the largest measurement difference. If ware sizing down, then use an even
grade equal to the value of the smallest difference. This will get the pattern
close to the general size you need, then we can make minor adjustments as needed.
2. My favorite
method allows for a more exact fit and is the best way to address fit problems
for pear- or triangle-shaped women. Just separate the pattern at the waist, and
grade the top and bottom individually. Then rejoin the pattern, and blend the
new lines at the waistline.
3. We can address
an uneven grade based solely on the difference between the bust measurement of
the pattern and the body. Because the bust is the hardest part of the body to
fit, many patternmakers evenly grade the pattern to fit the bust, then alter as
necessary at the waist and hip.
4. This method is
specific to a common grading challenge that occurs when a body has changed in
width or height, but not both. With a client who’s gained weight, for example,
just grade for circumference and forget about grading for length. Or for a
teenage daughter who’s grown 6 in. taller but hasn’t filled out otherwise,
ignore circumference and only grade for length.
Putting it all together:
determined that you have an even grade, the actual mechanics of cut-and-spread
grading are easy (see The cut-and-spread method for detailed instructions).
Basically, you will use your measurements to do some easy calculations, create
the cut lines on your pattern, then spread/overlap at each cut line the
calculated amount. I’ve listed the necessary formulas in the grading chart, as
well as pre-calculated values (no math needed) for three different overall
grades (1 in., 1-1/2 in., and 2 in.).
method can even be used when grading large amounts up or down, for example a
size 4 to a size 18. The large gaps at the cut lines do tend to be a little
awkward, so I recommend grading incrementally instead (first grade the size 4
to a size 12 and then the size 12 to a size 18).
Insider tip industry secrets and know-how:
There are no
standard sizes in the garment or pattern industry. Each manufacturer sets its
own base pattern measurements and grading con-venations based on a specific
for patterns or garments usually differ within a company’s product line.
Smaller grades, 3/4 or 1 in., are associated with smaller numerical pattern or
garment sizes. That is, a size 4 may only be graded down 3/4 in. to produce a
size 2. Intermediate grades, 1-1/2 or 2 in., are typical of middle numerical
sizes. Larger grades, 3 in. or more, separate larger sizes. This is why one
company’s size 8 can be different from another’s (i.e., different base pattern
measures) and why the difference between a size 8 and 10 vary from one company
to the next.
- Automatic-laser cloth-cutting machine
- Water jet Cutting
- Band Knife -Cutting Machines
- Straight Knife- Cutting Machine
- Die Cutting Machines
Advantage of Straight knife
1. It is relatively cheap
2. It is easy to transfer
3. It can be used to cut high layer of fabric
4. It can cut a higher degree of angle than round knife
5. It can be used to cut 10” layer of fabric.
6. It can cut fabric quickly
7. There is an attachment in the machine to recharge the knife
8. It can cut fabric at any angle.
Advantage of Band knife:
1. Very fine and accurate cutter
2. Smaller parts can be cut easily
3. It can cut fabric at any angle
4. Less risk of accident
2. Dies having the exact shape of the garment pieces.
3. Some dies are sued over a long period.
Advantages of Die Cutter:
of Water jet Cutting:
No Heat Affected Zone
My self-inspections should cover safety and health issues in
the following areas:
These checklists are by no
means all-inclusive. We should add to them or delete items that do not apply to
your business; however, carefully consider each item and then make our
decision. We should refer to standards for specific guidance that may apply to our
Sewing Tips for Better and More Consistent Results:
Easy-to-follow, Step-by-step Instructions
Avoid the “Homemade Look” when Sewing or
2. Sewing Machine:
4. Iron an Ironing Surface &
Tools & Other Accessories
1. Cut two pieces of fabric from the pattern. Use as your pattern, the piece
marked #l-seams. Align the long edge of the paper pattern with the lengthwise
grain of the fabric, along the selvage edges.
2. Place right sides of the fabric together, matching the seam edges of the
pieces that correspond to the seam to be sewn. Pin in place if necessary.
3. Using a 5/8″ seam allowance, sew the fabric pieces together on the long
end of the rectangle.
4. First press the seam flat and then press it open using the point of the iron
to completely flatten the seam out. See the sections-on pressing and pressing
Prepare three plain seams. Two of these will be used for the exercise on seam
finishes. The other is to be turned in for grading.
2. After pressing the seam open press both SA’s in the same direction.
3. Trim the underneath SA only to 1/4″.
4. Fold the untrimmed SA over the trimmed SA and pin or baste in place.
5. Top stitch the folded edge in place.
2. Place a second row of machine stitching just inside the first row of
stitching about l/16″ away.
2. Turn the edge of the seam to the inside along the row of stitching and press
3. Top stitch the turned edge in place sewing through the seam allowance only.
2. Adjust the stitch length to between 3 and 4.
3. Adjust the stitch width to between 2 and 3.
4. Sew a row of zig zag stitching along the seam edge, placing the zig-zag
stitch so that one stitch fall inside the row of edge stitching and the other
falls just outside the seam edge.
2. Apply a three thread serged finish ( in any color) right on the raw edge,
making sure that you trim only the small threads off the raw edge.
1. Complete the bodice by stitching the shoulder and side seams using a
5/8″ SA. Press seams open.
2. Using chalk mark the skirt off in quarters along the gathered edge.
3. Pull the button thread in the skirt up until the skirt width approximately
matches the bodice waistline seam.
4. With RIGHT sides together pin the skirt to the bodice, matching: First
quarter mark to the side seam. Half way mark to CF of the bodice. Third quarter
mark to the second side seam.
5. Distribute the gathers evenly between pins. This is done by moving the
gathers by hand, pin the gathers in place as you work. Make sure there are no
gathers in the 5/8″ SA at CB of the skirt. Check to see that you pin the
bodice flat with the darts going towards CF or CB.
Procedures that are followed with every pattern that goes through grading:
As a pattern enters the grading room, certain tasks should be performed prior
to the grading process. Its arrival should be logged as part of a permanent record
for future reference. The side seams should be checked for equal length. Patterns
should be checked against preliminary
specifications and these should be cross referenced against a garment made by the
pattern room from the sample pattern.
We certainly agree that there needs to be standardized processes as I’ve
described ad nauseum before. While it would have been remiss for this author to
have failed to mention the need of pattern checking, the pattern checking
should happen well before it ever gets to the pattern grader. Just as a pattern
maker cannot change a detail without a designer’s approval, a pattern grader
cannot change a detail without getting the pattern maker’s approval. Besides,
pattern checking isn’t their job. Pattern grading is not pattern making. The
author also mentions the need of a standardized sizing profile for the company.
This varies a great deal and it is constantly evolving and changing according
to market conditions. As a young company, you don’t know hard numbers at the
outset, you can’t, it depends on who ends up buying your stuff. Who you
envision buying your stuff and who actually does are two different things. As
you go along, you may have to adjust your sizing. When you’re first starting
out, you may not really know either, that’s why a lot of people copy the
apparent sizing strategies of the companies they’d like to compete with.
- Pattern Construction – A.J. Khaled
And Technology – M A Kasam
To Clothing Production Managements-A.J. Chuter
To Clothing Manufacture- Gerry Cooklin
Technology Of Clothing Manufacture- Harold Carr & Barbara Latham
- www.E how .org
Pattern Construction is very important of Apparel Industry. It can be spun in to yarn or
processed in textile such as fabric, knit, non-woven etc by means of yarn an appropriate
interacting method. It should have sufficient length, fineness strength,
elasticity and softness. The availability and price are also important for a
fabric to be used as textile.
is important that all those working within the fashion industry have an
understanding of the basic principles of pattern construction. This explores
the terminology and visual language associated with the process of pattern
Diagnose and use
the most suitable methods to solve identified design problems:
paper copy of the each component of the garment of exact dimension of each
component is called pattern. The pattern’s also includes seam allowance,
trimmings allowance, darts, pleats, ease allowance any especial design etc.
If we are problem is employee
absenteeism, poor quality parts, financial difficulty, or something similar,
the public discussion will tend to focus on solutions rather than on blame
attribution. If the problem does not derive from people difficulty, as in how
to pack light bulbs more safely or how to hold books upright on partially
filled library shelves, posting the problem can hook solutions that may have
been applied to a similar problem elsewhere. And of course, the basic strategy
behind posting a problem is that it gets several minds working on the problem,
both independently and in discussion with others.
a horizontal guideline on paper.
the back panels together with hipline on guideline and trace. Transfer darts
and grain line with pushpin to paper underneath. Remove patterns.
for the front.
down from hip level to length desired and square across for hemline.
a line down from dart points parallel with center front and back. Label a and
b. mark a point 2 or more inches from A and dart point of the princess line.
in from side at hemline and blend. Cut from paper. Trace and separate patterns
along style line.
Ø Draw grain line , punch and
Ø Breaking the problem
not to looking
Ø Denying a problem perpetuates it.
The problem at an intellectual rather
than personal level. If we are problem is employee absenteeism, poor quality
parts, financial difficulty, or something similar, the public discussion will
tend to focus on solutions rather than on blame attribution. If the problem
does not derive from people difficulty, as in how to pack light bulbs more
safely or how to hold books upright on partially filled library shelves,
posting the problem can hook solutions that may have been applied to a similar
problem elsewhere. And of course, the basic strategy behind posting a problem
is that it gets several minds working on the problem, both independently and in
discussion with others. People in the organization will talk about the problem
in their idle moments.
Take time to examine and explore the problem thoroughly before setting out in
search of a solution. Often, to understand the problem is to solve it.
Breaking the problem into smaller parts will often make solving it much easier.
Solve each part separately.
The resources for problem solving are immense and ubiquitous.
We can always do something.
A problem is not a punishment; it is an opportunity to increase the happiness
of the world, an opportunity to show how powerful.
The formulation of a problem determines the range of choices the questions we
ask determine the answers we receive.
Be careful not to look for a solution until we understand the problem, and be
careful not to select a solution until we have a whole range of choices.
The initial statement of a problem often reflects a preconceived solution.
A wide range of choices ideas, possible solutions allows you to choose the best
from among many. A choice of one is not a choice.
People work to implement their own ideas and solutions much more energetically
than they work to implement others’ ideas and solutions.
Remember the critical importance of acceptance in solving problems. A solution
that is technologically brilliant but sociologically stupid is not a good
When the goal state is clear but the present state is ambiguous, try working
Solve the problem that really exists, not just the symptoms of a problem, not the problem we already have a solution
for, not the problems wish existed, and not the problem someone else thinks exists.
A maker follows a plan, a creator produces a plan.
Creativity is the construction of some things new out of some things old,
through effort and imagination.
Basic Pattern Grading:
Amongst the tutorials provided on the site you’ll find
a guide to pattern grading. That guide is based on you knowing the individual
measurements and where to put them on the pattern. Only a basic shaped pattern
is covered, and the example measurements are provided in metric.
For a simpler understanding, but with a larger choice
of styles, the diagrams here will show you how to grade you pattern. These
diagrams can be used for the slash and spread method of pattern grading or
pattern shifting, the areas of growth are shown on each diagram. They can be
used for grading any pattern whether it be homemade or commercial..
The basic size grade is 1 size up, but the process can
be repeated many times, up or down, or you can multiply the number to get more
than one size e.g. from size 12 to size 18 you’d times the number by 3.
The examples provided for women’s measurements are a 2″
grade (5cm). Front pattern pieces are provided only, use the same details for
grading the back pattern pieces.
If we would
like to grade men’s patterns you can use the charts below as a guide, presuming
the grade size is also 2″ (5cm). The only difference is the length grade,
where the length grade is 1/8″ for women, replace with with 1/16″ for
men. Like wise 1/4″ length grade for women needs to change to 1/8″
below are designed as a guide only, and are not the definitive answer to
pattern grading. For more in-depth and accurate pattern grading instruction
please refer to a good text book.
chart is here for those who work in decimals or metric.
Patterns to Use:
The design problems related with
‘Team’ And ‘Team Strategy’
Pattern: Define a family of algorithms, encapsulate each
one, and make them interchangeable. Strategy lets the algorithm vary
independently from clients that use it.
Produce patterns for a capsule collection that show accurate
interpretation of designs, relevant information and cutting instructions:
In apparel manufacturing, the
individual components of a garment are made by hard copy, drawing paper or
board paper, which shape and size is same as individual parts of that garments
is called pattern.
A pattern, from the French
patron, is a type of theme of recurring events of or objects, sometimes
referred to as elements of a set. These elements repeat in a predictable
Pattern in architecture is the idea of
capturing architectural design ideas as archetypal and reusable descriptions.
The term “pattern” is usually attributed to Christopher Alexander, an
Austrian born American architect.
The patterns serve as an aid to
design cities and buildings. The concept of having collections of
“patterns”, or typical samples as such is much older.
1. Commercial Patterns.
2. Patterns Drafted with Personal
Commercial patterns are usually
done on tissue paper. Since tissue paper is not bulky, it allows many pieces of
pattern to be packed compactly in an envelope. Good patterns are carefully
labeled with the following information: pattern size, name of each pattern
(back, front, sleeve, etc), number of pieces to cut from each pattern piece,
pattern markings like notches, buttons and button hole position, seam allowances,
grain lines, center front, center back, hem line markings, dart locations, etc.
Some companies even give markings for pattern alteration locations. In addition
instruction sheets explaining steps involved in using the pattern, to cut the
garment, method of cutting specific fabrics with different textures and print,
method of construction and fabric suitability.
with Personal Measurements:
In many ways it is most
advantageous to draft your own patterns rather than buy commercial patterns. It
is most economical, since drafting’s based on personal measurements fit well.
paper copy of the each component of the garment of exact dimension of each
component is called pattern. The pattern’s also includes seem allowance,
trimmings allowance, darts, pleats, ease allowance any especial design etc.
patterns design could also be done manually or with the help of computer.
dressmakerfrequently employs one of three
pattern creation methods. The flat-pattern method begins with the creation of asloperorblock, a basic pattern for a fitted,neckbodiceand narrowskirt, made to the
wearer’s measurements. The sloper is usually made of lightweightcardboardortag board,
details. Once the shape of the slope has been refined by making a series of
mock-up garments calledtoilsormuslins, the final slope can be used
in turn to create patterns for many styles of garments with varying necklines,
sleeves, and dart placements.
Although it is also used for women’s wear, the
drafting method is more commonly employed in menswear and involves drafting a
pattern directly onto pattern paper using a variety of straightedges and
curves. Since menswear rarely involvesdraping, pattern-making is the primary
preparation for creating a cut-and-sew woven garment. The initial measurements
and adjustments are created on paper as a draft. More paper is placed over top
of the draft and traced off with seam allowance added to these pieces, which
will then be cut out and used to cut out actual fabric for sewing. If this
draft will be frequently used, a sloper is created to speed up the production
The pattern draping method is used for more elaborate
and unique designs that are hard to obtain through the flat pattern method.
This is because it is nearly impossible to account for the way a fabric will
drape or hang on the body without an actual 3-dimensional test run. It involves
creating a muslin mock-up pattern by pinning fabric directly on adress form,
then transferring the muslin outline and markings onto a paper pattern or using
the muslin as the pattern itself.
order to effect a large production run, huge quantity of fabrics must be cut
from a lay allowing part to be cut as per assortment. In order to make sure a
lay, a paper marker is first created. A paper marker is a piece of paper upon
which patterns of each part of a garment in the ratio of assortment is 1:2:2:1.
patterns for each part of S, M, L and XL sizes must be reproduced on a paper in
the ratio of 1:2:2:1. This paper is referred to as a paper market. The paper
marker is generally placed on ht top of the fabric lay.
fabric is cut with a straight-knife cutting machine along the outline of the
pattern on the marker.
marker may be creating manually with a pen or pencil on to a paper or it may be
generated with a computer-controlled plotter.
In the case of automatic computer
controlled cutting a paper marker is not essential. The marker is creating in
the computer of the CAD system.
marker is sent to the computer of the automatic cutter, which cuts the fabric
with the instruction of the computer of the machine.
is a thin paper which contains all necessary pattern pieces for all sizes for a
particular style of garments in such a way that fabric wastage would be least.
representation or drawing of the arrangement of identified garment pattern
pieces relevant to the cutting of a batch of material.
marker placed is placed on the material and provides guidance for cutting.
Marker may be on fabric, paper card or held in computer data files.
The factors that influenced
following factors affect marker planning:
requirements of production planning
A clothing or fabric cutting is
the marks and cuts fabric according to a pattern.
on the size and type of clothing company, the work of a clothing marker/cutter
may be two separate jobs. This is most likely to be the case in larger clothing
factories where the marking is done on the computer.
markers/cutters need to have measuring skills, problem-solving skills and an
eye for detail. They must be skilled in making calculations, and they should be
able to follow instructions. They may also need computer skills.
Clothing markers/cutters should
know about fabrics, garment construction, cutting equipment and methods, sewing
codes and symbols, and Computer Aided Design (CAD) equipment.
Clothing markers/cutters need to
be accurate, quick, neat and patient. They should also be practical and able to
work well under pressure.
Clothing markers/cutters need to
have normal colour vision and good hand-eye co-ordination. Height may be an
advantage for reaching across the cutting table.
It is preferred that clothing markers/cutters
have two years’ secondary education in technical drawing, moths and basic
computing. Some employers prefer their clothing marker/cutters to have a
Diploma in Fashion Design and Technology, but this depends on the type of
or night courses in clothing and/or work in a clothing factory or workroom may
provide useful experience.
Produce a set of graded patterns for a simple garment with a set
of rules explaining the process for sizing up and down and providing
information needed by cutters:
Pattern grading is an essential part of pattern
making. It decides how patterns increase or decrease sizes. According to
countries, pattern grading includes Asian. Generally, pattern grading adjusts
for people of different ages and genders. The fabric type also influences the
pattern grading standards. And marker makings are the actual full size print
out of how the styles are cut on the fabric. The cost of pattern grading is
incomplete without considering marker making
By following approved sample production pattern is always
mode in medium size. It the buyer wants different size. We have for grade the
dimension of the garment. It many are S, L, MX, XZ, XXL. It means grading to
separate the garments according to size.
is inspecting the garments are further packed in carton mode to hard paper. It
is done for the case of handling and for the protection during exporting.
garments are ok is send to the buyer. Main sections in garment: There are two
sections in a garment.
i) Production oriented section
ii) Commercial section
Different sections of production:
There are mainly 4 sections in garment manufacturing.
the complete CAD solution for apparel industry, providing fast and accurate
support for the entire preparation of a new garment, from simple design to
Automatic grading and the interactive grading
functions allows the previous experience to be stored in grading rules and
easily applied to the new products. Euro CAD Pattern Designer is based on
Bezier curves, but can also handle complex. The
interface has a very different approach compared to other CAD
applications, because is built to be extremely user friendly, according to the
latest software standards. The average time for a new user to learn the
application is less than a week.
Checking and Modifying:
Cut and lay planning:
Automatic marker making:
Marker and patterns output to plotter for manual cutting:
Export for CNC Cutters:
A simple garment:
With A simple T-Shirt &
Ensure that notches
and seam alignment for all sizes of grades are accurate:
Methods of grading
The easiest method, which is the basis of the other two
methods, is to cut the pattern and spread the pieces by a specific amount to
grade up, or overlap them to grade down. No special training or tools are
required—just scissors, a pencil, tape, and a ruler that breaks 1 in. down to
Pattern shifting is the process of increasing the overall
dimensions of a pattern by moving it a measured distance up and down and left
and right, using a specially designed ruler and redrawing the outline, to
produce the same results as the cut-and-spread method.The most recent
grading, is the fastest method, but tends to be an investment only larger
manufacturers can afford. However, sophisticated home computer software is
Pattern vs. body measurements:
Establish the grade:
If the differences between these measurements aren’t equal,
then it’s an uneven grade. This changes the shape of a garment, as well as its
size, so strictly speaking, uneven grading isn’t really grading. “Uneven
grade” is synonymous with “pattern alteration.” An even grade is
the type of grade I will discuss because it’s straightforward and easy to
understand. Once you master the even grade, applying the methods to the uneven
grade is the next step. See Four ways to address an uneven grade for more information.
accurate patterns with smooth-cut edges:
department is the one which plays a key role in production. It is the beginning
of the production. So the cutting has the most efficient professionals working
in it .The cutting department should work as fast as possible because the more
the unloading of bundles can take place the more the production can take place.
section involves spreading of the pile of fabric, cutting of the pile, snickering,
pinning and quality check.
Each tool should be market with
an identity symbol and transported in a carrying case. Tools may be purchased from
apparel supply houses, art stores, department stores, and yardage stores.
Specialized tools, such as rabbit punch used to punch holes, are generally
supplied by the manufacturer.
silk for draping and fitting.
pencil and sharpened lead for pattern work.
and blue colored pencils to identify pattern changes. Black , green, red, and
blue felt tip pens for pattern information
general rule 1/2 12inch(very accurate)
plastic rule (flexible for measuring curves)
square-24*14inch metal ruler with two arms forming a 90 degree angle that
measures, rules, and squares simultaneously
with measurements to square lines.
6. Curve rules:
curve, deign 17 is one of several curves used for shaping armhole and neckline.
curve rule, shapes hipline, hem, apes vary from curve, blends and shape armhole
Knives without handles are used to remove stitching.
Inappropriate items are used for hammering seams on garments such as ball
peen hammers and wrenches.
Machines Used in Cutting Department:
section is the critical department. Only highly skilled operators are need to
be taken. In this, department expertise planning is needed to improve the
efficiency in making and suggesting the pattern of the fabrics which basically
improves in the reduction of fabric wastage.
Mainly used for mass production of slow change items.
Very accurate and excellent for small components.
Fabric can be cut in a short time.
It is much better for the knitted fabric
Advantage of Automatic-laser
The machine adopts computer software automatic control
automatic transmitting materials,
Don’t need worker to manage,
Save time, money and staff.
Only need one person to operate.
There are many advantages of water jet cutting. As
opposed to flame, plasma & laser cutting, water jet and abrasive jet
cutting produce no heat affected zone to work harden the cut edges. Therefore
we are able to cut various metals, plastics and other materials without
melting, distorting or warping them.
Water jet/Abrasive jet Cutting gives us a way to
routinely cut precision parts with tolerances as close as ± 0.005″ and
better when required. Cutting is controlled by a computer and special software
which follows profiles/part geometry designed using Computer Aided Design (CAD)
A cutting system is suitable in a
There are different types of cutting system but a
cutting system is suitable in a particular situation. for example
Straight knife is a manually operated electric knife
and it is suitable for a large amount of fabric. It can cut fabric with a high
speed and at any angle. A person can learn the operation of the equipment in a
short time. In 90% clothing manufacturing factory of Bangladesh use this
equipment. The investment cost is low and operator is available. So it is good
equipment in developing country like Bangladesh.
Computer control cutting knife is very good to cut
fabric accurately. But the investment cost is high and skilled operator is not
available in many situations. On the other hand where quality is the main thing
and skilled operator is available and company has the ability to invest a high
amount to cut fabric accurately then Computer controlled cutting knife is best.
From the above research we can come in a decision that
at fast we have to understand the situating than according to the situation we
should set up the cutting system.
Maintain a safe working environment at all times:
Receiving, Shipping and Storage :–
job planning, layout, heights, floor loads, projection of materials, material handling and storage methods, training for
material handling equipment.
and Grounds Conditions: –
walls, ceilings, exits, stairs, walkways, ramps, platforms, driveways, aisles.
disposal, tools, objects, materials, leakage and spillage, cleaning methods,
schedules, work areas, remote areas, storage areas.
switches, breakers, fuses, switch-boxes, junctions, special fixtures, circuits,
insulation, extensions, tools, motors, grounding, national electric code
intensity, controls, conditions, diffusion, location, glare and shadow control.
Heating and Ventilation: –
effectiveness, temperature, humidity, controls, natural and artificial
ventilation and exhausting.
operation, flywheels, gears, shafts, pulleys, key ways, belts, couplings,
sprockets, chains, frames, controls, lighting for tools and equipment, brakes,
exhausting, feeding, oiling, adjusting, maintenance, lockout/tagout, grounding,
work space, location, purchasing standards.
including hazard identification training; experience; methods of checking
machines before use; type of clothing; PPE; use of guards; tool storage; work
practices; methods for cleaning, oiling, or adjusting machinery.
Hand and Power Tools :–
standards, inspection, storage, repair, types, maintenance, grounding, use and
handling, transportation, spills, disposals, amounts used, labeling, toxicity
or other harmful effects, warning signs, supervision, training, protective
clothing and equipment, hazard communication requirements.
alarms, sprinklers, smoking rules, exits, personnel assigned, separation of
flammable materials and dangerous operations, explosion-proof fixtures in hazardous
locations, waste disposal and training of personnel.
regular and preventive maintenance on all equipment used at the worksite,
recording all work performed on the machinery and by training personnel on the
proper care and servicing of the equipment.
Type, size, maintenance, repair, age, storage,
assignment of responsibility, purchasing methods, standards observed, training
in care and use, rules of use, method of assignment.
vehicle safety, seat belts, vehicle maintenance, safe driver programs.
First Aid Program/Supplies: –
care facilities locations, posted emergency phone numbers, accessible first aid
Evacuation Plan: –
and practice procedures for an emergency evacuation, e.g., fire,
chemical/biological incidents, bomb threat; include escape procedures and
routes, critical plant operations, employee accounting following an evacuation,
rescue and medical duties and ways to report emergencies.
Our tutorials utilize methods,
equipment and tools that can be dangerous. Never proceed with a tutorial
without first carefully reviewing and understanding all of the instructions
that accompany the equipment, tools or any other product used in the project,
as well as providing yourself a safe working environment. Be aware of your own
limitations and factor in your own good judgment and common sense.
Eye Safety is No Accident:
our tutorials to be reliable guides, but realizes working conditions,
equipment, skill level, and safety issues can vary greatly. As a result,
SewNeau does not guarantee the applicability, completeness, or accuracy of the
information and does not assume responsibility for the results, or any damages,
injuries or losses that occur as a result of using the information provided
Seamstress, alterations, tailoring, clothing repair, dressmaking •
Serving Cleveland Ohio women & men since.
does not have to look homemade, yet so often, talented amateurs are
disappointed with their results. The following tips and suggestions are
intended to help even the beginner overcome the “Homemade” look.
Building on good habits and
breaking bad habits are the key to better looking clothes that you made
Our work surface should be as large as the work area
can reasonably accommodate. It should be sturdy enough to support: your
machine; the project; other accessories; and the weight of you leaning against
it, without easily moving.
The work surface should be at elbow height. The wrists
should be kept straight. The edges of the work surface should be rounded, or
padded for comfort.
The work surface should be approximately elbow height,
permitting the wrists to be kept straight. The surface should be high enough to
not confine your thighs, with sufficient room underneath to operate the sewing
Our chair plays a critical role in establishing the
proper sitting work height.
The chair itself should have
adjustments for: 1. height, 2. seat tilt, and 3. backrest position. The back
rest should be padded, with rounded edges, and be adjusted to support the lower
adjustable task lighting to make it easier to see project. General, overhead
lighting should be even to eliminate shadows and glare. Artificial light
affects color. Although natural, north light alone is usually not sufficient,
having a work area with natural, north light available (to check color) is a
Never forget you are working with equipment and tools
that can be dangerous. The potential for injury is not only to you, but others
around you. Your work area should permit concentration on the task at hand.
Keep distractions to a minimum.
A sewing machine can be a long-term investment. Ask
family, friends and neighbors, who sew, for recommendations. Try-out the floor
models. Once you decide, then shop price. Don’t forget the Internet.
Quantity should guide we purchase decision. Buy the
best machine we can afford for ourcurrentneeds. Do not be tempted to buy
features (including all those fancy stitches) that we will probably never use.
We are buying a machine, not a piece of furniture! The
work surface on most built-in machines is simply too small. A portable machine,
in combination with a work table (discussed above) makes the best use of both.
A sewing machine (like your car) requires regular
maintenance to keep it working correctly. The machine’s manual will specify how
often routine service should be performed. A well-maintained, quality sewing
machine can last decades.
Most machine settings are
pre-set at the factory. If your machine begins to miss stitches, or make
unusual noises, something may be wrong with it. Don’t attempt self-repair
beyond what your manual suggests. Have the machine checked and serviced by an
authorized, qualified service center.
Sewing Machine Needles
They are three basic
considerations when buying sewing machine needles:
Specific – Even
if you don’t buy the manufacturer’s brand, purchase replacements that are
specifically made for your machine model.
& Task Specific – Not all needles work best for all
fabric or tasks. The needle packages are labeled for their intended purpose.
Use the correct one!
Ahead – Have
an extra pack, on hand, of the needles used most often. Needles have a tendency
to break at the worst times. Changing one in the middle of a project is bad
enough. Having to make a trip to the store to buy them first is a real pain.
Regardless of the brand or type you choose keep both
the iron and ironing surface clean, checking them regularly for mysterious
“gooey-stuff” that can ruin your fabric and your entire day.
Be aware of the fabric’s reaction to ironing. Always
test press a scrap piece of material and adjust the settings accordingly before
pressing your garment. Fabric bolts are usually labeled with care instructions,
which may reference ironing. Using de-mineralized (distilled) water will extend
the life of your iron and reduce the risk of staining your fabrics.
During Assembly: Unless directed otherwise by the
pattern instructions press all seams open and flaton the inside.
After assembly: Final fitting and all
adjustments, always press the entire garment, pressing on the inside.
The seamstress or tailor may
not wear a tool belt, but they do use hand tools regularly. Here’s the short
list of what we need and some suggestions to make them work.
accurate costing sheets and lay plans showing effective use of fabric and
grading rules using appropriate software:
order to achieving perfect garment costing, me most know about all the
activities includes purchase of fiber, sewing, packing, transport, overhead etc
and also about their costs. Procedures and risk factors, advocates fees,
costing is deciding factor for fixing of prices the important thing to follow
in all stages likes purchase production, marketing, sales etc.
Total- raw material cost = 140
Total manufacturing cost of per price garment = 154 Tk.
Safe working practices are systems of work that are
carried out in a safe manner for any given task. Although most businesses use
safe systems as a matter of course, it is best to record these and make sure
they are communicated to your employees by giving them a copy of th recording
during their training.
The best person to put together a safe working
practice for a task is someone who has experience and competence in carrying
out the task in question. This could
well be yourself, as one of the reasons you are in business is because you
are likely to be an expert in your area of work. Undoubtedly, you
will also employ skilled personnel to carry out the tasks, who have
certain levels of experience or competence.
Permits to work are written
instructions detailing the correct procedure to follow for a specific
task. They help to ensure the safety of those carrying out the task, as verbal
instructions can be misunderstood, forgotten or not passed on
and timescale for the activity.
of the authorizing person.
safety precautions, e.g. emergency stops activated.
no additional work may be carried out, only what is stated on the permit
Flat fell seam:
1. Prepare a plain seam using a 5/8″ SA.
This exercise is to be done on the
seam edges of the two plain seams with the 5/8″ seam allowances prepared
1. Begin as for single edge stitch.
l. Begin as for single edge stitch.
1. Begin as for single edge stitch.
Use a raw edge on any of the plain seams that you have just applied seam
gathers to another garment piece:
This exercise will be done on the Size 8 bodice pieces and
the dirndl skirt prepared previously.
Grading rules using:
Normally for large
scale garments production of any style needs different sizes to produce from a
set of particular size of patterns, the patterns of different sizes are
produced by using grade rule which is called grading.
is the first step of production planning and if often finished after sample
making. Once orders are in place, get
our patterns and grading completed.
will determine the yield of fabric needed for your order. Once markers are
complete, fabric can be ordered.
Sample # 01 (Part – 01)
By following approved sample production pattern is always
mode in medium size. It the buyer wants different size. We have for grade the
dimension of the garment. It many are S, L, MX, XZ, XXL. It means grading to
separate the garments according to size.
The Disability Act sets out the Victorian Government’s responsibility
in relation to people who have an intellectual disability. The Disability
Services Branch of the VictorianDHSis
responsible for implementing the aims and objectives. The Disability Act
contains a list of objectives and principles that apply to all persons covered
by the Act.
Section 6 of the Act provides a list of principles and provisions that
apply specifically to people who have an intellectual disability, which
§ People who have an intellectual disability have acapacity for physical, social, emotional
and intellectual development and have the right to opportunities to develop and
maintain skills and to participate in activities that enable them to achieve
valued roles in the community;
§ Services for people who have an
intellectual disability should be designed and provided in a manner that
maximises opportunities for people living in residential institutions to live
in community-based accommodation;
§ people who have an intellectual
disability in a residential institution have the right to a high quality of
care and development opportunities while they continue to reside in the
§ Services for people who have an intellectual disability
should be designed and provided in a manner that ensures developmental
opportunities exist to enable the realisation of their individual capacities,
and that a particular disability service provider cannot exercise control over
all or most aspects of the life of a person who has an intellectual disability.
Other relevant legislation includes theGuardianship and Administration. This
focuses on the provisions found in the Disability Act relating to the Victorian
Government’s responsibility in relation to people who have an intellectual
disability. For more information about the Commonwealth and state Disability
Services Acts in general.
Evaluate own pattern construction skills and use of pattern
We have learned:
are able to produce effective pattern.
have learned clothing manufacturing and factory.
have learned technology and equipment for pattern and garments manufacturing.
have learn some important terms like Purchase Order, Invoice , Letter of credit
that will be helpful for our future life and in other track of supply and
know how to find out the cost of a finished garments or a product.
know about various types of garments manufacturing process and have a good idea
of the total process.
the manufacturing process different types of process are used in a particular
objective. We have learned about different types of process and found that
every process is necessary in a particular situation. We will be able to select
a system that is suitable in the specific situation.
We might do:
ü We are now conscious about
pattern construction process.
ü We observe few manufacturing
process and make a report on it. So we might observe many garments
ü Purchasing and costing system is
a grate term and we just know the simple method of purchasing and costing so we
might describe it elaborately.
of pattern construction equipment:
sample cutting equipment can be applied forapparel paper pattern cutting, marking &
grading in sample making and short run production with high precision and
efficiency. The main materials processed by apparel sample cutting equipment
used inapparel are: paperboard, kraftpaper, cardboard. Cutting equipment
supports functions like cutting, half cutting, dotted line cutting, writing,
Selection and Preparation of
study, we presented the patterns generated by participants in the ?rst
experiment on a neutral background. We used patterns generated on training
tasks in the ?rst study for training in the current experiment. Similarly, we
used patterns from the testing phase of the ?rst experiment for the testing
phase of this study. We randomly selected 24 patterns from the training phrase
(equally split between the two task types). For the testing phase, we ?rst
sorted the original deminers according to their performance using the same
procedure as the one described in the earlier section on Patterns and Pattern
Creation Strategies. We then randomly picked, separately for the two Visual
support conditions, 2 participants in the top performance quartile (High
Performers) and 2 in the low performance quartile (Low Performers) for a total
of 2 2 2 = 8 original deminers. These
original deminers had each generated 6 patterns (3 for tasks with
with clutter, 3 for tasks with just Clutter). This provided us with a testing
set of 8 6 = 48 unique patterns.
though all the patterns were unique, they were all generated based on the same
smaller set of tasks (4 training, 6 testing). To increase diversity of the
patterns experienced by the new participants, we randomly rotated and
translated each of the patterns.
Patterns and Pattern Creation
take a qualitative look at the sensor head trajectories traced by four of our
participants as well as the patterns they created. We will use the term
“petals” to refer to the continuous arcs traced with a metal detector between
two adjacent edge points. To evaluate whether pattern creation strategies
in?uenced a definers’ success at correctly classifying targets, we ?rst rank-ordered
the participants (separately for each of the two Visual support conditions)
based on their classi?cation error rates (weighing false negatives a little
higher than false positives) and their localization errors. The sensor head
trajectories and edge points created by the highest and lowest performers in
each of the two visual support conditions are shown.
The aim of
this paper is to enable the student to participate in research, analysis,
conclusion drawing and report findings in an appropriate format. The project is
in two parts. Firstly, students develop a research proposal in an area relevant
to fashion. Secondly, this proposal forms the basis of the research project, in
which the student will undertake the approved project and report the findings
from the investigation in an approved format.
candidate for the degree of Bachelor of Fashion (Design and Technology) is
required to follow to the satisfaction of the Board of Studies, a programme of
study for a minimum period of three years. Each year of study comprises two
programme of study for every candidate requires 360 credits for successful
completion of the degree.
papers may have specific pre-requisites or other knowledge/skill requirements,
which must be satisfied by all students.
withdraw without penalty, provided they do so before the approved withdrawal
date for the programme. Refunds and other financial arrangements attached to
the SIT Zero Fees Scheme are detailed on the application form, and in the SIT
Student Handbook and Policies and Procedures Manual of the QMS.
In order to be
awarded the Bachelor of Fashion (Design and Technology), the student will
have been credited with all required papers and electives as specified in the
We have analysis the project and
found the following result. We have come in a decision that all equipment or
method is perfect in a particular situation. After examining the result we
found that out decision is perfect and some factory who are enough ability to
invest have setup a computer controlled cutting knife and who are poor
investment set up a manually operated cutting knife.
We have learned a purchasing and
costing system and many clothing manufacturing factory of Bangladesh is using
the system. So we will be able to do the work effectively.
This project demonstrates that there
is ample room for ergonomic improvements in the clothing industry. We need to
continue to identify problems and, more importantly, implement solutions to
reduce the risk of injuries in situations where we know problems exist.
But it is disadvantages are so
little to it is advantages. Above all this is a promising sector in our country
to build our properly. We should to co- operate to build this sector properly
in our country and then we will be the
best in the world.
Practical campus By– Sikder Textile (Naraingong).
Class lecture By– Jannatun Nahar.
Library Work By- SCTFT Library.