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Safety Management and Safety Problem in GrameenPhone Ltd.
01.01. Background of the study:
Performance Appraisal has been defined as a systematic appraisal of an employee by his/her supervising officer who is conversant with the employee’s job performance-S.A.Huq
Performance Appraisal process can serve as an effective tool for the following:
1) Employee Performance,
2) Employee Development,
3) Supervisory Understanding,
4) Guide to job changes.
Every Organization ,big or small ,proprietary or corporate needs to have an organized ,efficient and motivated work force to carry out the business objectives .Whether such a work force is present in the organization can only be found by means of a good appraisal system .A formal and periodic appraisal system encourages .Supervisors to observe the behavior of their subordinates .This enables supervisors to monitor the efficiency ,behavioral peculiarities and aptitude of workers ,which in turn helps the top management to locate their best workers .Effective performance appraisal should also recognize the legitimate desire of employees for progress in their professions ,as the appraisal leads to decisions on promotion ,transfer, lay offs and discharge .On the other hand ,the appraisal system itself needs to be neutral and objective in its monitoring so that bias & prejudice of the appraiser does not colour the evaluation process.
GP is a joint venture multinational company dealing with cellular mobile phone service provider in Bangladesh since 1996.Currently GP has 4872 staffs .The role of HR of GP is integrated in line with the vision, mission and BP of the company which is “To be the most preferred GSM Cellular service provider of Bangladesh by way of developing its people, products & services and meeting the needs of the stakeholders of the company.”
01.02. Importance of the Study:
Performance Appraisal (PA) is an important management tool and a superior motivation weapon .Through PA technique a company can discover the real diamond of the organization and polish them to the drizzling brilliance .PA also enable and organization to strike a workable balance between the company’s need for feedback and motivation.
The vital role that GP plays in the economy can be carried out only with the help of an organized, efficient and motivated work force .The study being proposed aims at evaluating the performance which will hopefully point out the strength and weakness of the system of appraising merit and performance of the staff members.
This will, in turn, help the management to design a better appraisal system to improve Human Resource Management in the Grameen Phone Bangladesh.
As a manager ,an important part of his/her job is to motivate and encourage the employees to be productive contributors .Performance appraisal system is a powerful tool to assist the managers .By approaching performance appraisal as an on going process ,manager will be able to:
Increase communication with subordinates,
Establish clear expectation,
Reinforce good performance,
Improve unsatisfactory performance of the employee,
Identify special talents,
Guide in planning the employees further needs and
Foster a spirit of co-operation and team work.
Performance appraisal system is also helpful to the individual employees in the following manner:
Helps to develop individual ,
Increase motivation and job satisfaction,
Creates an environment for the employee to talk with supervisor about job related problem, interest etc.
01.03 Objectives of the study :
Any research and field study has some objectives .This field of study on “Performance Appraisal System’’ in Grameen phone in Bangladesh also has some definite objective apart from being a requirement for the Post Graduate Diploma in Personnel Management under Bangladesh Institute of Management .Therefore, the general and specific objectives may be laid down as below:
a) Major Objectives:
The overall objective of the study is to find out the strength and weakness of the performance appraisal system & put suggestions and recommendations to make the system more effective, so that it can contribute to HRD process of the company.
b) Specific Objectives:
*To be acquainted with and acquire Practical knowledge regarding PA system of an organization.
*To relate theoretical knowledge of PA with practical implication .
*Determining training need for further improvement in performance.
*To review and analyze the existing PA system of the organization.
*To determine the acceptability and reliability of the PA system.
*To assess the factors which influence the PA system .
*To recommend measures to improve the system .
01.04 Scope of the study:
GP (Bangladesh) Ltd is service oriented company offering finest quality Mobile Telephone facilities in Bangladesh .There are about 4872 employees in various department of this organization .The organization has well defined marketing policy, well defined pay system and also follow standard recruitment, selection and training and an existing Performance Appraisal System .The effort of this study was to review and more effective Performance Appraisal System for GP.
01.05. List of Variables:
Variables that should be taken to review the appraisal system are as follows:
i) Clarity of standard.
ii) Hallo effect of the appraisal system.
iii) Central tendency of the supervisor when filling in rating scales.
iv) Leniency or strictness of the supervisor when rating their staff and
v) Business of the appraisal system.
01.06 Methodology of the study :
The methodology for collection of information relating to the study was collected from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data was collected from the selected respondents .The respondents were both appraiser and appraises .Questionnaire and interview method were used to obtain data from primary source. To collect primary data a structured and questionnaire were developed with the consent of the guide.
The study includes a sample size of 41 numbers, randomly selected from over 4500 employees of GP Bangladesh. While choosing the sample size ,due consideration was given to respondent’s grade level ,location sex etc.The respondents covers from both appraisers, appraisee groups .A table is constructed to represent the respondent’s characteristics. The respondents are selected based on the percentage of the number of staff in each grade so as to ensure representative ness of the population.
Table 1: Respondent’s Characteristics
Staff in %
The questions were designed in such a way so that every elements of the performance appraisal system can be covered by it. The respondents recorded their response along a scale of 2-4 categories of responses having some open ended questions.
The secondary sources include unstructured interview with senior staff ,review of reports .Staff all senior level have been asked several open-ended questions on various aspects of the performance appraisal system to know about their view points on the system. Their suggestions have been sought to know the means how the system can be better formalized in all offices.
The secondary data will be collected from various research papers, books, journals, Internet browsing and using the library of Bangladesh Institute of Management.
The following were some of the major limitations of the study:
a) Time allocation to complete the whole study was too short.
b) Non availability of relevant records and information in the organization was a major constraint.
g) Some of them showed less interest on such assignment and a few of the target group willingly avoided the interview.
h) Too much conservative atmosphere of the organization and its respondents to provide me with necessary document.
i) Some of the respondents thought that this kind of assignment will not be helpful to them so they felt no interest in it and their non-co-operative attitude created great difficulties to me.
Performance Appraisal – A theoretical background
People have the capacity to go either way – toward growth or toward stagnation. The design of the system in which they work can significantly influence which way they go and how far,
– Chris Argyris
Employees are more likely to be successful performers when they clearly understand their assignments, know what level of performance is considered acceptable, and receive consistent feedback. Evaluation of an employee’s performance is not just a once-a-year activity done by a supervisor to an employee. It is an ongoing process that involves information from coworkers, customers, the supervisor and even “the employee. The employee is just as responsible for his or her successful performance and evaluation as the supervisor. A formal performance appraisal is an important opportunity to summarize the informal evaluations of the employee’s performance over a longer period of time.
Clark Lambert define performance appraisal in “Field Sales Performance Appraisal as:
Performance Appraisal is a complete integrated management system, involving periodic planned discussion between two people, with the primary objective of comparing present performance against predetermined goals, coaching and counseling in areas requiring corrective action, to improve overall performance for the benefit of both the employee and the total organization.
02.02. Purpose and Use:
Main purpose and uses of performance appraisal are as follows:
01. Appraisals are an aid ‘to creating and maintaining a satisfactory level of performance by employees on their present job.
02. The appraisal may highlight needs and opportunities for growth and development of the person.
03. A formal and periodic appraisal encourages supervisors to observe the behavior of their subordinates.
04. An appraisals aids decision making for promotion, transfer, layoffs and discharge.
05. Many organizations relate the size and frequency of pay increases to the rating assigned to the employee in the performance appraisal.
06. Validating personnel programs.
02.03. Aims of performance appraisal system:
*To increase mutual understanding of performance requirements.
*To note and recognize achievements
*To note and analyze any problem meeting requirements.
*To provide the opportunity to discuss aspirations and concerns out career prospects and the present job.
*To define or redefine future objective.
*To agree self- development and training needs.
02.04. Benefits of a successful appraisal system can be summed up as follows:
For the organization:
01. Improved performance throughout the organization due to:
-more effective communication of the organization’s objectives and aloes;
-increased sense of cohesiveness and loyalty;
-improved relationships between managers and staff;
-Managers who are better equipped to use their leadership skills and to motivate and develop their staff.
02. Improved overview of the tasks performed by each member of the staff.
03. Identification of ideas for improvement.
04. Expectations and long term view can be developed.
05. Training and development needs identified more clearly.
06. A culture of continuous improvement and success can be created and maintained.
07. People with potential can be identified and career development plans formulated to cater for future staff requirements.
08. The message is conveyed that people are valued.
For the appraiser:
01. The opportunity to develop an overview of individual jobs and complete departments.
02. Identification of ideas for improvements.
03. Increased job satisfaction.
04. Increased sense of personal value.
05. The opportunity to link team and individual objectives and targets with departmental and organizational objectives.
06. The opportunity to clarify expectations of the contribution the manager expects from team and individuals.
07. The opportunity to re-priorities targets.
08. A means of forming a more productive relationship with staff based on mutual trust and understanding.
For the appraisee:
01. Increased motivation.
02. Increased job satisfaction.
03. Increased sense of personal value.
04. A clear understanding of what is expected and what needs to be done to meet expectation.
05. The opportunity to discuss work problems and how they can be overcome.
06. The opportunity to discuss aspirations and any guidance, support or training needed to fulfill these aspirations.
07. Improved working relationships with manager.
02.05. Types of performance appraisal:
All employees are appraised on their job performance in some manner or another. In general it can be said that the choice lies among three possible approaches:
i) A Casual, unsystematic and often haphazard appraisal.
ii) The traditional and highly systematic measurement of a) employee Characteristics
b) Employee contribution or c) both.
iii) Mutual goal setting through an Management by Objective program (MBO).
i) Casual Performance Appraisal:
It is believed that a large number of organizations in our country, specially those which are smaller in size don not follow systematic performance appraisal system. Management of this type of organization evaluates their employees by their own thinking in casual manner. They do not communicate with the employee this is like one-way judgment. Most of the cases it does not motivate the employee and full job satisfaction is not possible.
ii) Traditional Performance Appraisal:
Traditional performance appraisal is a matter of filling out a rating form. Normally, the form is completed by the immediate supervisor of the man being rated, then the supervisor’s boss.
Under the traditional system, we can mention the following types:
01. Ranking Method
02. Graphic rating scale
03. Graphic scales
05. Forced- choice description
06. Critical Incident method
07. Free from Essay
08. Overall assessment
09. Guideline assessment
11. Descriptive Essay
12. Assessment by employees
13. Group Appraisal
iii) Result Oriented Appraisal (MBO):
A latest development in the area of performance appraisal method is Management by result. Result oriented appraisal is consistent with the psychological principle that people work better when they have definite goals by providing feedback, it helps subordinates to know where they have definite goals by providing feedback, it helps subordinates to know where they stand and thus enhance learning. This approach gives the subordinate an opportunity to make his own evaluation of the operating results, when he/she is discussing results, he is actually appraising himself and probably gaining some insight on I10w he might improve his/her own attitudes, methods of behavior.
02.05. Limitation of the performance appraisal:
05. 01. Traditional performance appraisal system has following limitation:
a) Halo effect: The halo effect is the tendency of most raters to let the rating they assign to one characteristic excisable influencing their rating on their subsequent.
b) General tendency: Most commonly found, this error is evidenced when rater makes all or almost all personnel as average.
c) Constant error:
i) Too harsh
ii) Too lenient
Some raters have a tendency to be liberal in their rating that is they assign consistently high value or score to their people. In the other hand some have the tendency to consistently low rating.
d) Miscellaneous bias:
i)Length of service
ii) Race, Religion and nationality
02.05. In result oriented performance appraisal system the following limitations are commonly found:
a) The theory that the subordinate sets goal by himself or jointly with the boss may be in practice turn out to be illusory. If all depends on whether the non-directive approach which is required for goal setting by the subordinate is consist with the boss ordinary management style.
b) There is always the possibility that the subordinate may set his targets up low or rate himself too high…
c)Over emphasize on measurable factors may also encourage the covering up of poor performance, actual falsification of date or the setting low goals.
02.06. Basic consideration in appraisal
When a rater evaluates someone, he tends to think in terms of what kind of person he is and what he has done. Thus appraisal plans require the rater to rate or score the employee on his potential traits and characteristics and on his contributions. Determination of the former is rather subjective, since different rater may appraise the same individual differently. Employee contributions what a man actually accomplishes on the job – can be more objectively ascertained. For many jobs the quantity of work produced is readily measurable, and it serves as an excellent gauge of the employee’s performance. Such measures are available for a high proportion or direct labor jobs in industry. On the other hand, it is very difficult to measure the output of a receptionist, an engineer, a maintenance man or a public relation officer.
It might be readily conceded that an employer is primarily interested in assassins his employees’ performance (that is, contribution), and therefore these factors should be counted more heavily. However, it is also apparent that such persof1 traits as cooperatives, dependability, attitude, initiative and ability to get along with others have a bearing upon the employee’s value to the organization .These characteristics affects a person’s relation with his boss and with his co-workers, and they influence his effectiveness on the job.
In recent years management has tended to place the greatest weight in appraisal upon the actual results people achieve on their jobs. It is recognize that two people can have quite different personalities and yet be equality effective in their work. This can be true even on the same job or occupation.
3. Review of the existing Grameen Phone Mobile Telephone Company Performance Appraisal System
In Bangladesh there are currently five mobile operators: Grameen Phone (stable 63% market share), Aktel, Banglalink, CityCell and Tele Talk. Warid is expected to launch its service soon. From the market share point of view it is clearly visible that Grameen phone is leading today. With the right kind of the efforts from their extremely dedicated work force, they not only can keep their beloved Grameen phone in the position of market leader but also can place it in a better position. Grameen phone is the biggest private telecommunication organization employing as many as 4872 employees. It is a matter of considerable interest to find out how the safety of such a large number of employees are assessed (especially Technical Division) and whether the safety management system in force meets modern management needs.
Performance Appraisal System is defined as a proper process of planning, organizing, monitoring, appraising, guiding, rewarding an individual employee’s performance by using standard tools. This is a formal management process being conducted through participatory manner. The system does not merely represent an annual event rather it represents a proper process viewed) the standpoint of total perspective. The essence of performance system is that the employees perform to the best of their abilities to attain individual and organizational goals and objectives.
In many organizations, a significant number of supervisors appraise employee’s performance at the end of a performance year virtually doing nothing throughout the entire calendar year but performance appraisal should be treated as one aspect of total Performance Appraisal System. GP views the system as a year round process. There are different components of performance appraisal system namely performance planning, performance monitoring and performance development and annual appraisal, each of those are inter-related and integrated with each another having several sub-components under each of those components.
The system is viewed as a cycle. Performance planning is the starting point of the cycle. Throughout the year, individual employees and manager establish communication system, provide performance feedback, participate in review, sessions as and when required, and in the end finalizes annual appraisal. Both agree to identify developmental needs during appraisal for the next year and once again start with performance planning for the next year and thus the process continues. The elements of the entire system are shown in the next page:
Elements of Grameen Phone Bangladesh Limited Performance Appraisal System
Most Recent Appraisal
Individual Operating Plan
Ongoing Monitoring and Development
Coaching and Mentoring
Regular Review Discussions
Finalization of APA
The three components of the performance Appraisal system are briefly discussed below:
3.1 Performance Planning:
Performance planning is a dialogue between supervisor and supervisee held at the beginning of the performance year i.e. just after the annual performance appraisal of the previous year is ended. The intent is to communicate mutual expectations and establish mutual understanding and accordingly set action plans for the year.
Performance planning is one for the important components of the entire performance appraisal system, and after the completion of the stage successfully the supervisors are able to take care of ongoing monitoring and development subsequently through consistent supervision, coaching and mentoring and regular review discussion with the supervisee.
Performance planning is viewed as the foundation of the performance appraisal system. Because, once this stage is successfully completed, both supervisor and supervisee can proceed to the next stages of performance appraisal system without any conflict. The subcomponents of performance planning are stated below:
3.1.1 Job Descriptions
Job description lists tasks, responsibilities that an individual has to perform in his or her position. An individual employee’s qualifications and competencies that are required to perform the job are also mentioned in the job description. GP performance appraisal system emphasizes that job description has to be reviewed on regular basis particularly during the period of finalization of work plan. For any type of goal setting through discussion between supervisor and supervisee, job description plays an important role.
3.1.2 Performance Competencies and Practice of Core Values
Supervisors have many expectations from their sub-ordinates and it is performance competencies that provide the basis for standardizing the expectations. The competencies may vary position to position. Competencies highlight knowledge, skills and attitude (KSA) of an individual to perform the job in his/her current level. The quality, quantity and timeliness (QQT) are important aspects of performance competencies.
In GP there are several common performance competencies for the staff at all level, however, for certain non-supervisory level of staff such as staff in grade 1,2 and 3 (Office Helper, Guard, Driver, Assistants etc) performance competencies are slightly different as compared to mid-level to senior level staff. GP attempts to ensure job related performance competencies although it is really a tough task.
For Grade 4 to 9 staff, individual competencies are:
i) Leadership skills ii) Individual Planning Skills iii) Conceptual skills iv) Problem Solving and Decision Making v) Gender Sensitivity
v) Works in Team Context vii) Coaching and Feedback skills
viii) Verbal and written communication.
For Grade 1 to 3 staff, individual competencies are:
i) Dutifulness ii) Individual planning Skills iii) Conceptual skills iv) Judgments v) Gender Sensitivity vi) Works in Team Context vii) Communication
Practice of Core Values:
Recently, the practice of core values has been incorporated with individual performance competencies section. The employee’s performance on the practice of core values will also be evaluated along with job descriptions an IPO’s. Core values are so important that guide individual staff’s courses of action, behavior in the work place. Core values have practical application with respect to individual job performance.
3.1.3. Individual Operating Plan
Individual Operating plans (IOP) are priories, time-bound and flexible objectives established by an employee that are not currently performed by him/her as a regular job. Based on discussion between supervisor and supervisee, specific IOPs of a year are determined at the beginning of the performance year. Usually, all staff in grade 4 to 9 are required to prepare IOPs. IOPs are determined on the basis of priority objectives, new initiatives or personal developmental targets having a standard format.
The following questions are relevant while preparing IOPs:
a) What I intend to do this year? (Objectives)
b) How will I do it? (Activities)
c) What would be the result form the objective being set?(output)
d) When I will do it? (Timing)
e) What support do I need? (Support)
3.1.4 Most Recent Appraisal
An employee’s most recent appraisal is reviewed prior to determining work plan for the next year. As, the most recent appraisal format highlights an employee’s strong and weak areas, therefore, the review of the same can bring significant insights in regard to setting future plan. In what areas the employee does not have proficiency and what is his or her future potential and how those areas can be addressed are known from recent appraisal. More specifically mentoring, in the “Future Development” areas such as formal/external training,
Formal / internal training, on the job training, cross-visit, additional responsibilities etc. Therefore GP stress the need for reviewing the most recent appraisal prior to setting goals for the next year.
3.2 On going Monitoring and Development
This is another important component of Performance Appraisal system that is conducted as and when required throughout the entire calendar year through consistent supervision by people managers and regular review sessions and discussion between supervisor and supervisee.
3.2.1 Consistent Supervision
Supervisor sees the pattern of behavior of the subordinates in connection with job performance. How the employee has been performing his or her job is being monitored by a manager. This is a continuous process of observation, follow-up and providing positive feedback to the sub-ordinates.
3.2.2 Coaching and Mentoring
Coaching means active measures GP by a manager to guide and assist employee to solve performance problems, to develop plans and build capability, and thus improve performance of the subordinates. Mentoring is role model and facilities in nature. The mentor describes his or her own experiences to the sub-ordinates to guide them. Through mentoring, a manager encourages and motivates an employee to do better and to remove performance problem.
3.2.3 Regular Review Sessions and Discussion
Whenever deemed necessary, both supervisor and supervisee sit together to reschedule the work plan, revisit lOPs, clarify problems and discuss about potential solutions. From time to time, achieve are reviewed and work plans are revised, if necessary, through discussion between supervisor and supervisee.
In the event any serious performance problem is observed, supervisor invites supervisee in the review discussions to arrive a solution. This is helpful to clarify mutual expectations and to address undesirable pattern of behavior.
Annual Performance Appraisal
3.3.1 The Format
There are two types of appraisal format; one for staff in grade 1 to 3 who do not have individual Operating Plan (IOP) and another for staff in grade 4 to 9 whose performance are evaluated with respect to individual Operating Plans. The other two sections are job description and Individual performance competencies and practice of core values.
3.3.2 Weight age System and performance rating:
In order to introduce a more proper and objective approach in the Performance rating, this weight age system has been developed. The relative weight age in each elements of the job description, IOP and performance competencies section vary in order of importance. Both supervisor and supervisee discuss and determine the weight age in each element of these sections and record the same in writing at the initial stage of the performance year.
For almost all the positions, individual weight age between the responsibilities, IOPs and competencies varies. However, if a supervisor feels that for a certain position, weightage in each elements of the responsibilities, IOPs and competencies should remain the same, it is allowed depending on the nature of the position, weightage in each elements of the responsibilities IOPs and competencies should remain the same, it is allowed depending on the nature of the position and in that case that is agreed upon between the supervisor and the supervisee and it is recorded in writing.
Staff having on IOP
Performance Standard Weight
Job responsibility 70%
Performance Competencies 30%
Staff having IOP
Performance standard Weight
Job responsibility 40% (or 60%)
Individual Operating plans 30% (or 10%)
Individual Competencies & practice of core values 30%
For any reason if staff in grade 4 and above have only personal development objectives then weight in the IOP section will be 100/0 only and the remaining 20% weight will be added with job responsibility section in that case weightage in the job responsibility will be 60% instead of 40 %.
There are five types of performance ratings which are discussed below:
Significantly Exceeds Requirements (SER): Outstanding, superior performer, extremely competent and knowledgeable.
Exceeds Requirements (ER): Excellent performance, dependable and competent.
Meets Requirements (MR): Good performance
The numeric values of performance rating are:
Outstanding or SER 5
Superior or Exceeds requirements 4
Good or meets requirements 3
Needs improvements 2
For overall rating the scale is developed:
90 – 100 Outstanding or SER
70 – 89 Superior or Exceeds requirements
55 – 69 Good or meets requirements
Below 55 needs improvements
Calculation of overall rating:
Based on the numeric value being assigned as mentioned above, each of the job element (job responsibility, IOP objective or competency) is given a score which is supported by a brief narration. The score for each element is multiplied by corresponding weight. The sum of these weighted values gives the section-wise overall rating. The section-wise score is then multiplied by each section weight. Thus, the summation of each section wise score gives an overall performance rating.
The linking of performance rating and salary increment is established thereafter.
3.3.3 Mid – term Evaluation
Mid term performance reviews are conducted during December – January, each year. Mid-term review is personal discussion between supervisor and supervisee about employee’s performance. How far the subordinate has performed during the first six months period is evaluated. Before the annual appraisal in May-June, the mid-term review gives an opportunity to review the strengths and weakness and thus the weak areas can be addressed before annual appraisal comes in. However, this is done in an informal manner. The documentation is kept at a minimum level.
3.3.4 Self Evaluation
The employees are encouraged to draft his or her own evaluation before the review by the supervisor. The employees are asked to apply fair judgment before drafting self evaluation.
3.3.5. Peer feedback
The supervisor collects inputs from other staff prior to completing the appraisal format. The peers may be staffs within the section /projects or in other departments / projects that has frequent interaction about the employee’s performance. Peers feedback is given due importance before finalization of annual appraisal. The peers and the number are mutually agreed upon both supervisor and supervisee. Peers may send their comments by using a standard format. Peers feedback is one of the strong parts of the performance appraisal system.
3.3.6. Appraisal interview
The supervisor invites the supervisee in the appraisal interview once the appraisal is reviewed by him. Performance feedback is very important aspect of performance appraisal process. Both supervisor and supervisee share their ideas, provide feedback in a constructive manner to meet objectives and improve performance during appraisal interview. The supervisee is supposed to be conducted in a comfortable setting. The supervisor discussed strong and weak areas of the subordinates citing examples of the specific events during the performance year. Both agree on the future developmental needs and discuss about future plans.
3.3.7. Supervisor’s Implementation of Performance Appraisal process
In the frontal page of the APA format, all appraises will rate their respective supervisor’s ” Implementation of Performance Management Process” by ticking rating in the space of I) performance’ planning ii) Midterm Review iii) Ongoing feedback iv) performance appraisal. This rating will be done at the time whenever the appraisee receives his/her APA but the appraiser’s comment has not yet been completed.
3.3.8 Appraiser’s Supervisor’s comments
The evaluator collects inputs from his/her supervisor before finalizing the appraisal of his/ her subordinates. The evaluator’s supervisor reviews the content of the appraisal and gives overall comments in the” supervisor’s evaluator” portion.
3.3.9 Employee Comments
The employee read his / her appraisal and writes his/her comments in the appropriate section of the APA format. The employee is supposed to provide one-week time by supervisor to review the appraisal format.
3.3.10. Submission to next level and personnel
Once all parties agree and sign the appraisal, it is forwarded to respective project Coordination Unit / General Managers for review and final approval. Thereafter, appraisal is forwarded to next level of authority before sending to personnel department for checking, processing and communicating appraisal outcome to all staff.
4. Analysis of Primary data and Findings
A: Part A represents both appraisers and appraisees common responses on various aspects of the performance appraisal system.
4.1 Necessity of the Performance Appraisal system
There is a need for performance appraisal system in every organization. The underlying rationale of the system comes from the need for evaluating and recognizing employee’s job performance with respect to job requirements and providing performance feedback / counseling and allocating rewards / opportunities.
All of the respondents of the study unanimously expressed their viewpoints that there is an need for performance appraisal system in the organization. All 100% respondents know that this system exists in the organization. All 100% respondents know that this system exists in the organization and the importance of the system is unquestionable to all respondents.
4.2 Staff’s level of understanding about the system
Table 2: Staff’s level of understanding about the system
Level of understanding
From the table, it is found that 39% of the sample respondents understand the system well but a significant number of the sample employees (61%) have average to poor level of understanding about the system. It can be assumed that a large number of this 61% those having average to poor understanding of the system represents the appraisees groups that can be viewed from the next part of the analysis. Needless to mention that a until and unless all staff understands the system, the positive aspects of the system will remain unknown and unexplored.
A different finding is noted in the following table, once the .level of understanding is looked from the perspective of respondent’s grades level. The table shows that the understanding level is higher among higher grades staffs (mainly officers, managers coordinators etc) than junior flower grade staffs (field trainer, assistant officers, assistants, driver, office helper, guards etc.) 86% of the junior flower level staffs have average to poor level of understanding about the system while understanding level. is higher among senior level staff.
Table 2A: Grade wise level of understanding
4.3. Objectives of the Performance Appraisal System
Table 3: Objectives of the Performance Appraisal System
Purposes of appraisal system
Identification of training / devt. Needs
Placement / promotion decision
Identify potential for career planning
Most of the respondents think that the importance of PA system can be viewed from more than one perspective. Of the respondents, the highest number of response came in favor of identification of training needs (88%) followed by performance feedback/counseling (83%). Other reasons of the appraisal system such as salary increment, career planning tools and recording employee performance have also been highlighted. The appraisal system as a promotion or separation tool is viewed by relatively smaller number of respondents.
4.4. Role of HRD & M
Table 4: Role of HRD & M in the clarification of the system
How far clarifies about the system
Performs but not regularly
Does not perform
The role of Human Resources Development and Management department in terms of clarifying specific detail of the performance appraisal system to all staff is enormous. HRD & M has to circulate memos, guidelines, and formats disseminate information to all staff and to train line managers and staff about specific details of the system. 29% of the sample respondents think that HRD & M performs it’s role regularly while as many numbers (71%) responded that HRD & M’s role could still be made more regular and effective. Nobody responded that HRD & M does not clarify performance appraisal issues to staff.
It may be the case that a certain category of respondent have received performance appraisal training, and that may be reflected in their responses while others in the junior/lower grade level may not have received training therefore answered accordingly.
4.5 Period of Performance Appraisal system
GP Bangladesh thinks that performance appraisal system is a year-round process. This is evident form the sample responses. 64% of the respondents view that the system is to be conducted throughout. The performance year beginning from July through June, each year, although some of the respondents (10%) view the system as an annual event. A good number of respondents (24%) are interested to be appraised quarterly.
This is notable that GP Bangladesh Performance Appraisal System includes several components which are to be conducted throughout the entire calendar year. The objective setting is done at the initial stage of the performance year i.e. during July-August, periodic review sessions are undertaken throughout the year based on initial objective setting and at the .end of the performance year, and the process is completed by an annual appraisal. From the table, it is evident that staff has notable gaps in understanding 2bout the timing of the system, 36% of the total respondents does not view the performance appraisal as a year round process.
4.6 Mid -term Evaluation
Table 6: Mid term Evaluation
Supervisors conduct mid-term evaluation
Mid-term evaluation is conducted during December – January, each year to review six months performance trend. This is done in a most informal way before annual appraisal. One of the strong sides of the GP Bangladesh performance appraisal system is that supervisors evaluate staff’s performance in the middle of the performance year to assess the major achievements or shortfalls at the half way mark. 81% respondents answered that the supervisors have completed their mid-term evaluation in the last year. Although mid-term evaluation is mandatory for all level of staff, still for 19% cases, mid- term evaluation is mandatory for all level of staff, still for 19% cases, mid -term evaluation was not completed in the last year. A monitoring tool in this regard seems to be necessary.
4.7 Performance Rating
Table 7: Performance Rating
Definition-and level of understanding
Percentage of Response
Very well defined , understands very well
Well defined , , understands well
Not well-defined ,has some understanding
Did not hear about this
From the table above, it is clear that five performance ratings are well defined and a significant number of respondents (83%) have no problem in understanding those ratings. However, a few of the respondents (15%) have problems in understanding the definition of performance ratings because they view that ratings are not well defined. Interestingly it is observed that, only one respondent (who is an Office Helper) (2%) has not heard about the rating system. It would be interesting finding if more staffs in lower grades are interviewed and asked to respond about their level of understanding about ratings.
4.8 Performance criteria
Table 8: Performance criteria
Nature of Performance Criteria
Criteria are job-related, fully measures performance
Moderately job-related ,moderately measures performance
Not job-related, does not measure job performance
The basis of performance evaluation is very important. The basis by which an employee’s performance will be evaluated must be carefully determined in any organization. According to the table, a large number of the sample respondents (61%) think that performance criteria are job related and those measures their performance. However, for certain positions (39%) performance criteria are moderately ob related. A remarkable finding from the table is that nobody thinks that performance criteria are not job-related or does not measure their performance.
4.8 Weightage system
Table 9: Weightage system
Opinion about the weightage distribution
Job description should have, more weight age
IOP should have more weightage
Competencies should have more weightage
Weight age determine is all right
Do not know about weightage system
In GP Bangladesh, employee’s performance is measured on the basis of performance using job descriptions, IOP and performance competencies. Each of the section has its weightage. The weightage system has been appreciated by different quarters. The relative weight distribution is done at the initial stage of the performance year.
From the table, it is found that a significant number of sample respondent (52%) think that relative weightage distribution ( as referred in section 2.3.2 of page 10) in three/two sections of the APA format is quite all right to them. On the other hand, 34% think that job responsibilities should be allocated more weightage than others. 02% have no idea about weightage system. The drawing of any conclusion form the findings are difficult, however, further analysis with more sample data will suggest whether a more realistic distribution of weightage is still required or not.
4.9 Performance rating scale
Table 10: Performance rating scale
Opinion about rating scale
Defined rating scale is all right
Defined rating scale more or less all right
Defined rating scale is inappropriate
Do not know about rating scale
In order to determine an overall performance rating, 5 point rating scales range is used (reference section 2.3…2). About 93% of the total respondents think that the definition of the performance rating scale range is appropriate and consider it acceptable. Only 05% think that those are inappropriate to determine employee’s overall rating. Interestingly, 02% have no idea about the rating scale.
4.11 About the APA Format and Contents
Table 11: About the APA Format
Simplicity of the appraisal format
The format is simple and understandable
The format is complex and difficult to understand
The reaction on the appraisal format is quite interesting. 73% of the total respondents think that the appraisal format is simple and they have no problem in understanding of the format. While, 27% of the respondents don not view it as simple as such, they have problems in understanding of the various elements of the format. Over the years, GP Bangladesh has changed the appraisal formats and forms in order to implement a better system than those of previous, however, the changing culture of the formats and forms has resulted difficulty in understanding among the staffs.
4.12. About the APA Contents
Table 12: About the APA Contents
About the APA Contents
Detailed narration required, narration should be minimum
Narration is not too many, it is require to justify rating
In the APA, Performance rating in each element of the job responsibilities, IOPs, and competencies has to be supported by corresponding narrative comments by providing concrete, definite examples of events, incidents and/or behavior. Although there is a general instruction to avoid repeated narration. Still there is a tendency that narration comes in a repeated manner in the APA forms. As such, some of the employees feel that narration should be kept minimum or it should be limited to only significantly Exceeds Requirements or Below Requirements rating only. From the table it is evident that 39% of the respondents (610/0) think that narration is required to justify performance rating. The drawing of any conclusion from the small sample size of the respondents is difficult; however, further study with more sample size will be required to draw any conclusion from the above.
In any organization until and unless, the APA format is made simple, staff will have difficulty is understanding. It seems that further review is required to simplify APA format and the content should be such that it focuses on the job, and repeated narration should be avoided as much as could be.
4.13 Linking Appraisal with financial benefits
Table 13: Linking Appraisal with financial benefits
Appropriateness of the linking between appraisal and increment