The Polluters Pay principle imposes absolute liability on the environment polluter not only to compensate the harm caused to the people but also the cost of restoring environmental degradation. Analysis this statement
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that causes adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution.
Air pollution has always accompanied civilizations. Pollution started from the prehistoric times when man created the first fires. According to a 1983 article in the journal Science, “soot found on ceilings of prehistoric caves provides ample evidence of the high levels of pollution that was associated with inadequate ventilation of open fires.” The forging of metals appears to be a key turning point in the creation of significant air pollution levels outside the home. Core samples of glaciers in Greenland indicate increases in pollution associated with Greek, Roman and Chinese metal production, but at that time the pollution was comparatively less and could be handled by nature.
King Edward I of England banned the burning of sea-coal by proclamation in London in 1272, after its smoke became a problem.. It was the industrial revolution that gave birth to environmental pollution as we know it today.. Extreme smog events were experienced by the cities of Los Angeles and Donora, Pennsylvania in the late 1940s, serving as another public reminder.
1^“Pollution – Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary”. Merriam-webster.com. 2010-08-13. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
2.^ Spengler, John D. and Sexton, KA(1983) “Indoor Air Pollution: A Public Health Perspective” Science (New Series) 221(4605 ): pp. 9–17, page 9
3.^ Hong, Sungmin et al. (1996) “History of Ancient Copper Smelting Pollution During Roman and Medieval Times Recorded in Greenland Ice” Science (New Series) 272(5259): pp. 246–249, page 248
4.^ David Urbinato (Summer 1994). “London’s Historic “Pea-Soupers””. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 2006-08-02.^“Deadly Smog”. PBS. 2003-01-17. Retrieved 2006-08-02.
5.^ James R. Fleming; Bethany R. Knorr of Colby College. “History of the Clean Air Act”. American Meteorological Society. Retrieved5.2006-02-14.
6. ^ James R. Fleming; Bethany R. Knorr of Colby College. “History of the Clean Air Act”. American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2006-02-14
Modern awareness against polluter
Pollution became a popular issue after World War II, due to radioactive fallout from atomic warfare and testing. Then a non-nuclear event, The Great Smog of 1952 in London, killed at least 4000 people. This prompted some of the first major modern environmental legislation, The Clean Air Act of 1956.Pollution began to draw major public attention in the United States between the mid-1950s and early 1970s, when Congress passed the Noise Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the National Environmental Policy Act. Severe incidents of pollution helped increase consciousness. PCB dumping in the Hudson River resulted in a ban by the EPA on consumption of its fish in 1974. Long-term dioxin contamination at Love Canal starting in 1947 became a national news story in 1978 and led to the Superfund legislation of 1980. Legal proceedings in the 1990s helped bring to light hexavalent chromium releases in California—the champions of whose victims became famous. The pollution of industrial land gave rise to the name Brownfield, a term now common in city planning Brittany in 1978 and the Bhopal disaster in 1984 have demonstrated the universality of such events and the scale on which efforts to address them needed to engage. The borderless nature of atmosphere and oceans inevitably resulted in the implication of pollution on a planetary level with the issue of global warming. Most recently, the term persistent organic pollutant (POP) has come to describe a group of chemicals such as PBDEs and PFCs among others. Though their effects remain somewhat less well understood owing to a lack of experimental data, they have been detected in various ecological habitats far removed from industrial activity such as the Arctic, demonstrating diffusion and bioaccumulation after only a relatively brief period of widespread use.
7.^1952: London fog clears after days of chaos (BBC News)
8. ^“Environmental Issues”. The Environmental Blog. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
Forms of pollution
The major forms of pollution are listed below along with the particular contaminant relevant to each of them:
- Air pollution: – the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common gaseous pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles. Photochemical ozone and smog are created as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to sunlight. Particulate matter, or fine dust is characterized by their micrometer size PM10 to PM2.5.
- Light pollution: – includes light trespass, over-illumination and astronomical interference.
- Littering: – the criminal throwing of inappropriate man-made objects, unresolved, onto public and private properties.
- Noise pollution: – which encompasses roadway noise, aircraft noise, industrial noise as well as high-intensity sonar.
- Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground leakage. Among the most significant soil contaminants are hydrocarbons, heavy metals, MTBE,<href=”#cite_note-9″> herbicides, pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons.
- Radioactive contamination, resulting from 20th century activities in atomic physics, such as nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons research, manufacture and deployment. (See alpha emitters and actinides in the environment.)
- Thermal pollution, is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence, such as use of water as coolant in a power plant.
- Visual pollution, which can refer to the presence of overhead power lines, motorway billboards, scarred landforms (as from strip mining), open storage of trash, municipal solid waste or space debris.
Water pollution, by the discharge of wastewater from commercial and industrial waste (intentionally or through spills) into surface waters; discharges of untreated domestic sewage, and chemical contaminants, such as chlorine, from treated sewage; release of waste and contaminants into surface runoff flowing to surface waters (including urban runoff and agricultural runoff, which may contain chemical fertilizers and pesticides); waste disposal and leaching into groundwater; eutrophication and littering
9. ^Concerns about MTBE from U.S. EPA website
A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil. Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant: its chemical nature, the concentration and the persistence
Sources and causes
Air pollution produced by ships may alter clouds, affecting global temperatures. Air pollution comes from both natural and human-made (anthropogenic) sources. However, globally human-made pollutants from combustion, construction, mining, agriculture and warfare are increasingly significant in the air pollution equation.Motor vehicle emissions are one of the leading causes of air pollution. China, United States, Russia, IndiaMexico, and Japan are the world leaders in air pollution emissions. Principal stationary pollution sources include chemical plants, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries, petrochemical plants, nuclear waste disposal activity, incinerators, large livestock farms (dairy cows, pigs, poultry, etc.), PVC factories, metals production factories, plastics factories, and other heavy industry. The United States alone produces about 250 million metric tons. Americans constitute less than 5% of the world’s population, but produce roughly 25% of the world’s CO2 and generate approximately 30% of world’s waste. In 2007, China has overtaken the United States as the world’s biggest producer of CO2, while still far behind based on per capita pollution – ranked 78th among the world’s nations.. However, to change the climate, the transition from fossil fuels like coal and oil needs to occur within decades, according to the final report this year from the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). There have also been some unusual releases of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, commonly called dioxins for simplicity, such as TCDD. Pollution can also be the consequence of a natural disaster..In the case of noise pollution, the dominant source class is the motor vehicle, producing about ninety percent of all unwanted noise world.
10.^ Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, 1972
11.^Environmental Performance Report 2001 (Transport, Canada website page)
12.^State of the Environment, Issue: Air Quality (Australian Government website page)
13.^Pollution and Society Marisa Buchanan and Carl Horwitz, University of Michigan
14.^ Beychok, Milton R. (1967). Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants (1st ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN0-471-07189-7. LCCN 67019834.
15.^ Silent Spring, R Carlson, 1962
Harmful effects creating by polluters
Overview of main health effects on humans from some common types of pollution.Adverse air quality can kill many organisms including humans. Ozone pollution can cause respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, throat inflammation, chest pain, and congestion. Water pollution causes approximately 14,000 deaths per day, mostly due to contamination of drinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries. An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet, and 1,000 Indian children die of diarrhea every day.] Nearly 500 million Chinese lack access to safe drinking water. 656,000 people die prematurely each year in China because of air pollution. In India, air pollution is believed to cause 527,700 fatalities a year. Studies have estimated that the number of people killed annually in the US could be over 50,000.Oil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes. Noise pollution induces hearing loss, high blood pressure, stress, and sleep disturbance. Mercury has been linked to developmental deficits in children and neurologic symptoms. Older people are majorly exposed to diseases induced by air pollution. Those with heart or lung disorders are under additional risk. Children and infants are also at serious risk. Lead and other heavy metals have been shown to cause neurological problems. Chemical and radioactive substances can cause cancer and as well, as birth defects
17.^World Resources Institute: August 2008 Monthly Update: Air Pollution’s Causes, Consequences and Solutions Submitted by Matt Kallman on Wed, 2008-08-20 18:22. Retrieved on April 17, 2009
18^waterhealthconnection.org Overview of Waterborne Disease Trends By Patricia L. Meinhardt, MD, MPH, MA, Author. Retrieved on April 16, 2009
19.^Pennsylvania State University > Potential Health Effects of Pesticides. by Eric S. Lorenz. 2007.
20.^“A special report on India: Creaking, groaning: Infrastructure is India’s biggest handicap”. The Economist. 11 December 2008.
21.^ “As China Roars, Pollution Reaches Deadly Extremes“. The New York Times. August 26, 2007.
22.^ David, Michael, and Caroline. “Air Pollution – Effects”. Library.thinkquest.org. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
Pollution has been found to be present widely in the environment. There are a number of effects of this:
- Biomagnifications describes situations where toxins (such as heavy metals) may pass through tropic levels, becoming exponentially more concentrated in the process.
- Carbon dioxide emissions cause ocean acidification, the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth’s oceans as CO2 becomes dissolved.
- The emission of greenhouse gases leads to global warming which affects ecosystems in many ways.
· Invasive species can out competed native species and reduce biodiversity. Invasive plants can contribute debris and biomolecules (allelopathy) that can alter soil and chemical compositions of an environment, often reducing native species competitiveness.
· Nitrogen oxides are removed from the air by rain and fertilize land which can change the species composition of ecosystems.
· Smog and haze can reduce the amount of sunlight received by plants to carry out photosynthesis and leads to the production of tropospheric ozone which damages plants.
· Soil can become infertile and unsuitable for plants. This will affect other organisms in the food web.
· Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can cause acid rain which lowers the pH value of soil.
Environmental health information
The Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP) at the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) maintains a c TEHIP comprehensive toxicology and environmental health web site that includes access to resources produced by TEHIP and by other government agencies and organizations. This web site includes links to databases, bibliographies, tutorials, and other scientific and consumer-oriented resources. TEHIP also is responsible for the Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) an integrated system of toxicology and environmental health databases that are available free of charge on the web. TOXMAP is a Geographic Information System (GIS) that is part of TOXNET. TOXMAP uses maps of the United States to help users visually explore data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory and Superfund Basic Research Programs.
23.^“SIS.nlm.nih.gov”. SIS.nlm.nih.gov. 2010-08-12. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
24.^“Toxnet.nlm.nih.gov”. Toxnet.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
Regulation and monitoring
To protect the environment from the adverse effects of pollution, many nations worldwide have enacted legislation to regulate various types of pollution as well as to mitigate the adverse effects of pollution.
Pollution control is a term used in environmental management. It means the control of emissions and effluents into air, water or soil. Without pollution control, the waste products from consumption, heating, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation and other human activities, whether they accumulate or disperse, will degrade the environment. In the hierarchy of controls, pollution prevention and waste minimization are more desirable than pollution control. In the field of land development, low impact development is a similar technique for the prevention of urban runoff.
Practices of decreasing pollution
Greenhouse gases and global warming created by polluters
Historical and projected CO2 emissions by country, Carbon dioxide, while vital for photosynthesis, is sometimes referred to as pollution, because raised levels of the gas in the atmosphere are affecting the Earth’s climate. Disruption of the environment can also highlight the connection between areas of pollution that would normally be classified separately, such as those of water and air. Recent studies have investigated the potential for long-term rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide to cause slight but critical increases in the acidity of ocean waters, and the possible effects of this on marine ecosystems.
Most polluted places in the developing world
The Blacksmith Institute, an international non-for-profit organization dedicated to eliminating life-threatening pollution in the developing world, issues an annual list of some of the world’s worst polluted places. In the 2007 issues the ten top nominees, already industrialized countries excluded, are located in Azerbaijan, China, India, Peru, Russia, Ukraine and Zambia. a concept where manufacturers and importers of products should bear a significant degree of responsibility for the environmental impacts of their products throughout the product life-cycle, including upstream impacts inherent in the selection of materials for the products, impacts from manufacturers’ production process itself, and downstream impacts from the use and disposal of the products. Producers accept their responsibility when designing their products to minimize life-cycle environmental impact
25.World Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Table 1, Report DOE/EIA-0573, 2004, Energy Information Administration)
26.^Carbon dioxide emissions chart (graph on Mongabay website page based on Energy Information Administration’s tabulated data)
27.^The World’s most polluted places, Blacksmith Institute – September 2007
Polluters pay principle
In environmental law, the polluter pays principle is enacted to make the party responsible for producing pollution responsible for paying for the damage done to the natural environment. It is regarded as a regional custom because of the strong support it has received in most Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and European Community (EC) countries. The polluter pays principle underpins environmental policy such as an coax, which, if enacted by government, deters and essentially reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Some eco-taxes underpinned by the polluter pays principle include: the Gas Guzzler Tax, in US, Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE)- a “polluter pays” fine. The U.S. Superfund law requires polluters to pay for cleanup of hazardous waste sites, when the polluters can be identified.Polluter pays is also known as extended producer responsibility (EPR). This is a concept that was probably first described by Thomas Lindquist for the Swedish government in 1990. EPR seeks to shift the responsibility dealing with waste from governments (and thus, taxpayers and society) to the entities producing it. In effect, it internalizes the cost of waste disposal into the cost of the product, theoretically meaning that the producers will improve the waste profile of their products, thus decreasing waste and increasing possibilities for reuse and recycling.
OECD defines EPR as:
a concept where manufacturers and importers of products should bear a significant degree of responsibility for the environmental impacts of their products throughout the product life-cycle, including upstream impacts inherent in the selection of materials for the products, impacts from manufacturers’ production process itself, and downstream impacts from the use and disposal of the products. Producers accept their responsibility when designing their products to minimise life-cycle environmental impacts, and when accepting legal, physical or socio-economic responsibility for environmental impacts that cannot be eliminated by design.
28.^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Washington, DC (1996).“The Buck Stops Here: Polluters are Paying for Most Hazardous Waste Cleanups.” Superfund Today (newsletter). Document No. EPA-540-K-96/004. June 1996.
29.^ The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics at Lund University, Sweden (2000).“Extended Producer Responsibility in Cleaner Production” Doctoral Dissertation (2000)
30.^ Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Environment Directorate, Paris, France (2006). “Extended Producer Responsibility.” Project Fact Sheet.
Limitations of polluter pay principle
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has observed that the polluter pays principle has typically not been fully implemented in U.S. laws and programs. For example, drinking water and sewage treatment services are subsidized and there are limited mechanisms in place to fully assess polluters for treatment costs.
Polluters are responsible for restoration of the environment
Environmental restoration is a term common in the citizens’ environmental movement. Environmental restoration is closely allied with (or perhaps sometimes used interchangeably with) ecological restoration or environmental remediation. In the U.S., remediation is the term used more in the realms of industry, public policy, and the civil services. In the 1987 edition of his book Restoring the Earth: How Americans are Working to Renew our Damaged Environment, scientific editor and writer John J. Berger defined environmental restoration (or “natural resource restoration”) as follows: “… A process in which a damaged resource is renewed. Biologically. Structurally. Functionally.”
Natural environment-The victim of polluters
The ongoing growth of human population in the world and its associated impacts, mean that the need for ecological restoration has become increasingly clear] The old adage “an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” points to the fact that ecological restoration is not always successful (or only over long spans of time) and, when feasible, is often difficult and expensive. Environmental restoration is often neglected, either being overlooked or being deemed inexpedient or of a low priority. However, in much of the industrialized world, it has been increasingly demanded by the public, at least since the early 1970s if not before. The interest and activity in environmental restoration has given rise to a new branch of research and applied techniques within biology, restoration ecology. Environmental restoration has been applied in aquatic situations (lakes, streams, rivers, wetlands, etc.) and terrestrial ones (grasslands, forests, deserts, flatlands, hill country, mountain slopes, etc.).
31.^ EPA (2003). “Water and Wastewater Pricing: An Informational Overview.” Document No. EPA-832-F-03-027.
Environmental restoration involves many different approaches and technologies depending on the requirements of the situation. It can involve heavy equipment like cranes, graders, bulldozers, or excavators, and hand processes like the planting of trees and other vegetation. It can involve high-tech processes such as those applied in the careful environmental control required in fish-hatchery procedures. Today, computerized regulation is often being utilized in these processes. Computer-based mapping has also become an important dimension of restorative work, as has computer modeling. In some situations, environmental restorative work is handled entirely by professionals working with skilled operators and technicians. In others, ordinary local community members may do much of the work, acquiring skills as the project proceeds.
Environmental degradation-The harmful effect of nature
Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems and the extinction of wildlife. It is defined as any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable.Environmental degradation is one of the Ten Threats officially cautioned by the High Level Threat Panel of the United Nations. The United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction defines environmental degradation as “The reduction of the capacity of the environment to meet social and ecological objectives, and needs”.Environmental degradation is of many types. When natural habitats are destroyed or natural resources are depleted, environment is degraded.
Water deterioration- The harmful effect of nature
One major component of environmental degradation is the depletion of the resource of fresh water on Earth. Approximately only 2.5% of all of the water on Earth is fresh water, with the rest being salt water. 69% of the fresh water is frozen in ice caps located on Antarctica and Greenland, so only 30% of the 2.5% of fresh water is available for consumption. Fresh water is an exceptionally important resource, since life on Earth is ultimately dependent on it. Water transports nutrients and chemicals within the biosphere to all forms of life, sustains both plants and animals, and molds the surface of the Earth with transportation and deposition of materials.
32.Johnson, D.L., S.H. Ambrose, T.J. Bassett, M.L. Bowen, D.E. Crummey, J.S. Isaacson, D.N. Johnson, P. Lamb, M. Saul, and A.E. Winter-Nelson. 1997. Meanings of environmental terms. Journal of Environmental Quality 26: 581-589.
33.^“ISDR : Terminology”. The International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. 2004-03-31. Retrieved
Climate change and temperature
Climate change affects the Earth’s water supply in a large number of ways. It is predicted that the mean global temperature will rise in the coming years due to a number of forces affecting the climate, the amount of atmospheric CO2 will rise, and both of these will influence water resources; evaporation depends strongly on temperature and moisture availability, which can ultimately affect the amount of water available to replenish groundwater supplies. Transpiration from plants can be affected by a rise in atmospheric CO2, which can decrease their use of water, but can also raise their use of water from possible increases of leaf area. Temperature increase can decrease the length of the snow season in the winter and increase the intensity of snowmelt in warmer seasons, leading to peak runoff of snowmelt earlier in the season, affecting soil moisture, flood and drought risks, and storage capacities depending on the area.
Climate change and precipitation
A rise in global temperatures is also predicted to correlate with an increase in global precipitation, but because of increased runoff, floods, increased rates of soil erosion, and mass movement of land, a decline in water quality is probable, while water will carry more nutrients, it will also carry more contaminants. While most of the attention about climate change is directed towards global warming and greenhouse effect, some of the most severe effects of climate change are likely to be from changes in precipitation, evapotranspiration, runoff, and soil moisture. It is generally expected that, on average, global precipitation will increase, with some areas receiving increases and some decreases.
Population growth is affected by degradation
The available fresh water being affected by climate is also being stretched across an ever-increasing global population. It is estimated that almost a quarter of the global population is living in an area that is using more than 20% of their renewable water supply; water use will rise with population while the water is also being aggravated by decreases in stream flow and groundwater caused by climate change. Even though some areas may see an increase in freshwater supply from an uneven distribution of precipitation increase, an increased use of water supply is expected.An increased population means increased withdrawals from the water supply for domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses, the largest of these being agriculture, believed to be the major non-climate driver of environmental change and water deterioration. The next 50 years will likely be the last period of rapid agricultural expansion, but the larger and wealthier population over this time will demand more agriculture.
34.^ MacDonald, Glen M. “Water, Climate Change, and Sustainability in the Southwest.” PNAS 107.50 (2010): p 56-62.
35.^ Tilman, David, Joseph Fargione, Brian Wolff, Carla D’Antonio, Andrew Dobson, Robert Howarth, David Scindler, William Schlesinger, Danielle Simberloff, and Deborah Swackhamer. “Forecasting Agriculturally Driven Global Environmental Change.” Science 292.5515 (2011): p 281-84.
Agriculture is dependent on available soil moisture, which is directly affected by climate dynamics, with precipitation being the input in this system and various processes being the output, such as evapotranspiration, surface runoff, drainage, and percolation into groundwater. Changes in climate, especially the changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration predicted by climate models, will directly affect soil moisture, surface runoff, and groundwater recharge. The transfer of water from agricultural to urban and suburban use raises concerns about agricultural sustainability, rural socioeconomic decline, food security, an increased carbon footprint from imported food, and decreased foreign trade balance. The depletion of fresh water , as applied to more specific and populated areas, increases fresh water scarcity among the population and also makes populations susceptible to economic, social, and political conflict in a number of ways; rising sea levels forces migration from coastal areas to other areas farther inland, pushing populations closer together breaching borders and other geographical patterns, and agricultural surpluses and deficits from the availability of water induce trade problems and economies of certain areas. Climate change is an important cause of involuntary migration and forced displacement.
The issue of the depletion of fresh water can be met by increased efforts in water management.While water management systems are often flexible, adaptation to new hydrologic conditions may be very costly. Preventative approaches are necessary to avoid high costs of inefficiency and the need for rehabilitation of water supplies,and innovations to decrease overall demand may be important in planning water sustainability.
36.^ Young, Gordon J., James Dooge, and John C. Rodda. Global Water Resource Issues. Cambridge UP, 2004
37.^ Ragab, Ragab, and Christel Prudhomme. “Soil and Water: Climate Change and Water Resources Management in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions: Prospective Challenges for the 21st Century.” Biosystems Engineering 81.1 (2002): p 3-34.
38.^ Young, Gordon J., James Dooge, and John C. Rodda. Global Water Resource Issues. Cambridge UP, 2004
39.^ MacDonald, Glen M. “Water, Climate Change, and Sustainability in the Southwest.” PNAS 107.50 (2010): p 56-62
Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organizational or governmental levels, for the benefit of the natural environment and humans. Due to the pressures of population and technology, the biophysical environment is being degraded, sometimes permanently. This has been recognized, and governments have begun placing restraints on activities that cause environmental degradation. Since the 1960’s, activity of environmental movements has created awareness of the various environmental issues. There is no agreement on the extent of the environmental impact of human activity, and protection measures are occasionally criticized. Academic institutions now offer courses, such as environmental studies, environmental management and environmental engineering, that teach the history and methods of environment protection. Protection of the environment is needed due to various human activities. Waste production, air pollution, and loss of biodiversity (resulting from the introduction of invasive species and species extinction) are some of the issues related to environmental protection. Environmental protection is influenced by three interwoven factors: environmental legislation, ethics and education. Each of these factors plays its part in influencing national-level environmental decisions and personal-level environmental values and behaviors. For environmental protection to become a reality, it is important for societies to develop each of these areas that, together, will inform and drive environmental decisions.
What kinds of steps should be taken-Approaches to environmental protection
Voluntary environmental agreements
In industrialized countries, voluntary environmental agreements often provide a platform for companies to be recognized for moving beyond the minimum regulatory standards and, thus, support the development of best environmental practice. In developing countries, such as throughout Latin America, these agreements are more commonly used to remedy significant levels of non-compliance with mandatory regulation. The challenges that exist with these agreements lie in establishing baseline data, targets, monitoring and reporting. Due to the difficulties inherent in evaluating effectiveness, their use is often questioned and, indeed, the environment may well be adversely affected as a result. The key advantage of their use in developing countries is that their use helps to build environmental management capacity.
An ecosystems approach to resource management and environmental protection aims to consider the complex interrelationships of an entire ecosystem in decision making rather than simply responding to specific issues and challenges. Ideally, the decision-making processes under such an approach would be a collaborative approach to planning and decision making that involves a broad range of stakeholders across all relevant governmental departments, as well as representatives of industry, environmental groups and community. This approach ideally supports a better exchange of information, development of conflict-resolution strategies and improved regional conservation.
International environmental agreements
Many of the earth’s resources are especially vulnerable because they are influenced by human impacts across many countries.. These international environmental agreements are sometimes legally binding documents that have legal implications when they are not followed and, at other times, are more agreements in principle or are for use as codes of conduct. These agreements have a long history with some multinational agreements being in place from as early as 1910 in Europe, America and Africa.<href=”#cite_note-5″> Some of the most well-known multinational agreements include: the Kyoto Protocol, Vienna Convention on the Protection of the Ozone Layer and Rio Declaration on Environment and Development
Discussion concerning environmental protection often focuses on the role of government, legislation and law enforcement. However, in its broadest sense, environmental protection may be seen to be the responsibility of all people and not simply that of government. Decisions that impact the environment will ideally involve a broad range of stakeholders, including industry, indigenous groups, and environmental group and community representatives. Gradually, environmental decision-making processes are evolving to reflect this broad base of stakeholders and are becoming more collaborative in many countries.Many constitutions acknowledge the fundamental right to environmental protection, and many international treaties acknowledge the right to live in a healthy environment. Also, many countries have organizations and agencies devoted to environmental protection. There are international environmental protection organizations, as the United Nations Environment Programmed. Although environmental protection is not simply the responsibility of government agencies, most people view these agencies as being of prime importance in establishing and maintaining basic standards that protect both the environment and the people interacting with it.
40.^ Young, Gordon J., James Dooge, and John C. Rodda. Global Water Resource Issues. Cambridge UP, 2004.
41.^ Frederick, Kenneth D., and David C. Major. “Climate Change and Water Resources.” Climatic Change 37.1 (1997): p 7-23.
42.^ Ragab, Ragab, and Christel Prudhomme. “Soil and Water: Climate Change and Water Resources Management in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions: Prospective Challenges for the 21st Century.” Biosystems Engineering 81.1 (2002): p 3-34
43.^ Konikow, Leonard F. “Contribution of Global Groundwater Depletion since 1990 to Sea-level Rise.” Geophysical Research Letters 38.17 (2011).
The recommendation said that earliest precursor of pollution generated by life forms would have been a natural function of their existence. The attendant consequences on viability and population levels fell within the sphere of natural selection. These would have included the demise of a population locally or ultimately, species extinction. Processes that were untenable would have resulted in a new balance brought about by changes and adaptations. At the extremes, for any form of life, consideration of pollution is superseded by that of survival. For humankind, the factor of technology is a distinguishing and critical consideration, both as an enabler and an additional source of byproducts. Short of survival, human concerns include the range from quality of life to health hazards. Since science holds experimental demonstration to be definitive, modern treatment of toxicity or environmental harm involves defining a level at which an effect is observable. Common examples of fields where practical measurement is crucial include automobile emissions control, industrial exposure It is well-suited to some other modern, locally scoped applications such as laboratory safety procedure and hazardous material release emergency management. But it assumes that the diluting is in virtually unlimited supply for the application or that resulting dilutions are acceptable in all cases. Such simple treatment for environmental pollution on a wider scale might have had greater merit in earlier centuries when physical survival was often the highest imperative, human population and densities were lower, technologies were simpler and their byproducts more benign. However, these are often no longer the case. Furthermore, advances have enabled measurement of concentrations not possible before. The use of statistical methods in evaluating outcomes has given currency to the principle of probable harm in cases where assessment is warranted but resorting to deterministic models is impractical or infeasible. In addition, consideration of the environment beyond direct impact on human beings has gained prominence. Yet in the absence of a superseding principle, this older approach predominate practices throughout the world. It is the basis by which to gauge concentrations of effluent for legal release, exceeding which penalties are assessed or restrictions applied. Migration from pollution dilution to elimination in many cases can be confronted by challenging economical and technological barriers. Actually,” The Polluters Pay principle imposes absolute liability on the environment polluter not only to compensate the harm caused to the people but also the cost of restoring environmental degradation.”-that statement is true.
Books and Articles
· ^ “Pollution – Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary”. Merriam- webster.com. 2010-08-13. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
· ^ Spengler, John D. and Sexton, KA(1983) “Indoor Air Pollution: A Public Health Perspective” Science (New Series) 221(4605 ): pp. 9–17, page 9
· ^ Hong, Sungmin et al. (1996) “History of Ancient Copper Smelting Pollution During Roman and Medieval Times Recorded in Greenland Ice” Science (New Series) 272(5259): pp. 246–249, page 248
· ^ David Urbinato (Summer 1994). “London’s Historic “Pea-Soupers””. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 2006-08-02.
· ^ “Deadly Smog”. PBS. 2003-01-17. Retrieved 2006-08-02.
· ^ James R. Fleming; Bethany R. Knorr of Colby College. “History of the Clean Air Act”. American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2006-02-14.
· ^ 1952: London fog clears after days of chaos (BBC News)
· ^ “Environmental Issues”. The Environmental Blog. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
· ^ Concerns about MTBE from U.S. EPA website
· ^ Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, 1972
· ^ Environmental Performance Report 2001 (Transport, Canada website page)
· ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Washington, DC (1996).”The Buck Stops Here: Polluters are Paying for Most Hazardous Waste Cleanups.” Superfund Today (newsletter). Document No. EPA-540-K-96/004. June 1996.
· ^ The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics at Lund University, Sweden (2000).”Extended Producer Responsibility in Cleaner Production” Doctoral Dissertation (2000)
· ^ Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Environment Directorate, Paris, France (2006). “Extended Producer Responsibility.” Project Fact Sheet.
· ^ EPA (2003). “Water and Wastewater Pricing: An Informational Overview.” Document No. EPA-832-F-03-027.
- International Law and Naval War: The Effect of Marine Safety and Pollution Conventions during International Armed Conflict, by Dr. Sonja Ann Jozef Boelaert-Suominen (December 2000). http://www.nwc.navy.mil/press/npapers/np15/NewportPaperNo15.pdf
- Doswald-Beck, ICRC Review (1997), No. 316, 35–55; Greenwood, ibid., 65–75.
· ^ “Environmental Issues”. The Environmental Blog. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
· ^ Concerns about MTBE from U.S. EPA website
· ^ Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, 1972
· ^ Environmental Performance Report 2001 (Transport, Canada website page)
· ^ State of the Environment, Issue: Air Quality (Australian Government website page)
· ^ Pollution and Society Marisa Buchanan and Carl Horwitz, University of Michigan
· ^ http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/emis/tre_tp20.html
· ^ Beychok, Milton R. (1967). Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants (1st ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-07189-7. LCCN 67019834.
· ^ Silent Spring, R Carlson, 1962
· ^ “Pollution”. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2009.
· ^ “Chapter 23 – Solid, Toxic, and Hazardous Waste”
· ^ “Revolutionary CO2 maps zoom in on greenhouse gas sources”. Purdue University. April 7, 2008.
· ^ “Waste Watcher” (PDF). Retrieved 2010-08-26.
· ^ Alarm sounds on US population boom. August 31, 2006. The Boston Globe.
· ^ “China overtakes US as world’s biggest CO2 emitter”. Guardian.co.uk. June 19, 2007.
· ^ “Ranking of the world’s countries by 2008 per capita fossil-fuel CO2 emission rates.”. CDIAC. 2008.
· ^ “Global Warming Can Be Stopped, World Climate Experts Say”. News.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
· ^ Beychok, Milton R. (January 1987). “A data base for dioxin and furan emissions from refuse incinerators”. Atmospheric Environment 21 (1): 29–36. doi:10.1016/0004-6981(87)90267-8.
· ^ World Resources Institute: August 2008 Monthly Update: Air Pollution’s Causes, Consequences and Solutions Submitted by Matt Kallman on Wed, 2008-08-20 18:22. Retrieved on April 17, 2009
· ^ waterhealthconnection.org Overview of Waterborne Disease Trends By Patricia L. Meinhardt, MD, MPH, MA, Author. Retrieved on April 16, 2009
· ^ Pennsylvania State University > Potential Health Effects of Pesticides. by Eric S. Lorenz. 2007.
· ^ “A special report on India: Creaking, groaning: Infrastructure is India’s biggest handicap”. The Economist. 11 December 2008.
· ^ “As China Roars, Pollution Reaches Deadly Extremes”. The New York Times. August 26, 2007.
· ^ Chinese Air Pollution Deadliest in World, Report Says. National Geographic News. July 9, 2007.
· ^ David, Michael, and Caroline. “Air Pollution – Effects”. Library.thinkquest.org. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
· ^ “SIS.nlm.nih.gov”. SIS.nlm.nih.gov. 2010-08-12. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
· ^ “Toxnet.nlm.nih.gov”. Toxnet.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
· ^ American Petroleum Institute (API) (February 1990). Management of Water Discharges: Design and Operations of Oil-Water Separators (1st ed.). American Petroleum Institute.
· ^ Gershon Cohen Ph.D.. “The ‘Solution’ to Pollution Is Still ‘Dilution'”. Earth Island Institute. Retrieved 2006-02-14.[dead link]
· ^ “What is required”. Clean Ocean Foundation. 2001. Retrieved 2006-02-14.
· ^ “The Mixture Rule under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act”. U.S. Dept. of Energy. 1999. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
· ^ World Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Table 1, Report DOE/EIA-0573, 2004, Energy Information Administration)
· ^ Carbon dioxide emissions chart (graph on Mongabay website page based on Energy Information Administration’s tabulated data)
· ^ The World’s most polluted places, Blacksmith Institute – September 2007