The wildlife protection act 1972 is based on the principle of ahimsa as it is designed to protect bio diversity. Justify the statement.-Discuss
Wildlife Protection Act of 1972
This article is about the Government of India’s wildlife-protection legislation in 1972, for legislation adopted by the District of Columbia in 2010, we can find it in” Wildlife protection act of 2010”. An Act to provide for the protection of Wild animals, birds and plants and for matters connected therewith or ancillary or incidental there to.
|Citation||Act No. 53 of 1972|
|Enacted by||Parliament of India|
|Date enacted||9 September 1972|
The Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 refers to a sweeping package of legislation enacted in 1972 by the Government of India. Before 1972, India only had five designated national parks. Among other reforms, the Act established schedules of protected plant and animal species; hunting or harvesting these species was largely outlawed.
The Act provides for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants; and for matters connected therewith or ancillary or incidental thereto. It extends to the whole of India, except the State of Jammu and Kashmir which has its own wildlife act. It has six schedules which give varying degrees of protection. Schedule I and part II of Schedule II provide absolute protection – offences under these are prescribed the highest penalties. Species listed in Schedule III and Schedule IV is also protected, but the penalties are much lower. Schedule V includes the animals which may be hunted. The plants in Schedule VI are prohibited from cultivation and planting. The hunting to the Enforcement authorities have the power to compound offences under this Schedule (i.e. they impose fines on the offenders). Up to April 2010 there have been 16 convictions under this act relating to the death of tigers.
Definitions under the Act (Section 2)
“Animal” includes amphibians, birds, mammals, and reptiles, and their young, and also includes, in the cases of birds and reptiles, their eggs.
“Animal article” means an article made from any captive or wild animal, other than vermin, and includes an article or object in which the whole or any part of such animal has been used and an article made there from.
(a) Capturing, killing, poisoning, snaring, or trapping any wild animal, and every attempt to do so
(b) Driving any wild animal for any of the purposes specified in sub clause
(c) Injuring, destroying or taking any body part of any such animal, or in the case of wild birds or reptiles, disturbing or damaging the eggs or nests of such birds or reptiles.
“Taxidermy” means the curing, preparation or preservation of trophies.
“Trophy” means the whole or any part of any captive or wild animal (other than vermin) which has been kept or preserved by any means, whether artificial or natural. This includes:
(a) rugs, skins, and specimens of such animals mounted in whole or in part through a process of taxidermy
(b) antler, horn, rhinoceros horn, feather, nail, tooth, musk, eggs, and nests.
“uncured trophy” means the whole or any part of any captive animal (other than vermin) which has not undergone a process of taxidermy. This includes a freshly killed wild animal, ambergris, musk and other animal products.
“vermin” means any wild animal specified in Schedule V.
“wildlife” includes any animal, bees, butterflies, crustacean, fish and moths; and aquatic or land vegetation which forms part of any habitat
Hunting (Section 9)
This section describes what constitutes hunting and the intent to hunt. Hunting of wild animals is prohibited.
[Ownership (Section 40 & 42)
Regarding ownership issues and trade licenses.
[Penalties (Section 51)
Penalties are prescribed in section 51. Enforcement can be performed by agencies such as the Forest Department, the Police, the Customs Central Bureau of investigation (CBI)
The Bangladesh Wild life Preservation order 1973
President order no: 23 of 1973
(1) This Order may be called the Bangladesh Wild Life (Preservation) Order, 1973.
(2) It extends to the whole of Bangladesh.
(3) It shall come into force at once
2. In this Order, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,-
(a) “capture” means the taking alive of any wild animal;
(b) “dealer”, in relation to wild animals], trophies or meat, means any person who, in course of trade or business carriedon by him whether on his own behalf or on behalf of any other person,-
(i) sells, purchases or barters any wild animal], trophy or meat
ii) cuts, carves, polishes, preserves, cleans, mounts or otherwise prepares any wild animal’s] trophy or meat; or
(iii) manufactures any article from trophies or meat;
(c) “game reserve” means an area declared by the Government as such for the protection of wild life and increase in the population of important species wherein capturing of wild animals shall be unlawful;
(d) “Government” means the Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh;
(e) “hunt” means-
(i) killing, capturing, poisoning, snaring and trapping of any wild animal and any attempt to do so; or
(ii) driving any wild animal for any of the purposes specified in sub-clause (i); or
(iii) injuring or destroying or taking any part of the body of such wild animal or taking of nests or eggs of wild birds and reptiles];
(f) “license”, “special license”, “permit” and “special permit” mean, respectively, a license, a special license, a permit or a special permit granted or issued under this Order or the rules made hereunder;
(g) “meat” means fat, blood, flesh or any edible part of a wild animal], whether fresh or preserved;
(h) “national park” means comparatively large areas of outstanding scenic and natural beauty with the primary object of protection and preservation of scenery, flora and fauna in the natural state to which access for public recreation and education and research may be allowed;
(i) “offense” means an offense punishable under this Order any rule made hereunder;
(j) “officer” means any person appointed in this behalf to carry out all or any of the purposes of this Order or to do anything required by this Order or any rule made there under to be done by an officer, and includes a Forest Officer as defined in clause (2) of section 2 of the Forest Act, 1927 (Act No. XVI of 1927), and such other persons as may be authorized by the Government] to carry out such purpose or to do such thing as the Government may specify;
(k) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Order;
(l) “private game reserve” means an area or private land set aside by the owner thereof for the same purpose as a game reserve and declared as such under Article 24;
(m) “schedule” means a Schedule appended to this Order;
(n) “trophy” means any dead wild animal] or any horn, antler, tooth, tusk, bone, claw, hoof, skin, hair, feather, egg, shell or other durable part of a wild animal whether or not included in a manufactured or processed article;
(o) “wild animal” means any vertebrate creature, other than human beings and animals of usually domesticated species or fish, and includes the eggs of birds and reptiles; and
(p) “wild life sanctuary” means an area, closed to hunting, shooting or trapping of wild animals and declared as such under Article 23 by the Government as undisturbed breeding ground primarily for the protection of wild life inclusive of all natural resources, such as vegetation, soil, and water.
23. (1) The Government may, by notification in the official Gazette, declare any area to be wild life sanctuary.
(2) No person shall-
(i) enter or reside in any wild life sanctuary; or
(ii) cultivate any land in any wild life sanctuary; or
(iii) damage or destroy any vegetation in any wild life sanctuary; or
(iv) hunt, kill or capture any wild animal in any wild life sanctuary or within one mile from the boundaries of a wild life sanctuary; or
(v) introduce any exotic species of animal into a wild life sanctuary; or
(vi) introduce any domestic animal or allow any domestic animal to stray into a wild life sanctuary; or
(vii) cause any fire in a wild life sanctuary; or
(viii) pollute water flowing in or through a wild life sanctuary:
Provided that Government may, for scientific purposes or for aesthetic enjoyment or betterment of scenery, relax all or any of the prohibitions specified above.
(3) The Government may declare any area to be a national park where the following acts shall not be allowed, namely:-
(i) hunting, killing or capturing any wild animal in a national park and within the radius of one mile outside its boundary;
(ii) firing any gun or doing any other act which may disturb any wild animal or doing any act which may interfere with the breeding places of any wild animal;
(iii) felling, taping, burning or in any way damaging or destroying, taking, collecting or removing any plant or tree there from;
(iv) clearing or breaking up any land for cultivation, mining or for any other purpose;
(v) polluting water flowing in and through the national park:
Provided that the Government may, for scientific purposes or for betterment of the national park or for aesthetic enjoyment of scenery or for any other exceptional reasons, relax all or any of the prohibitions specified above.
(4) Construction of access roads, rest houses and hotels and provision of amenities for the public shall be so planned as may not impair, the primary] object of the establishment of a national park.
(5) The Government may declare any area to be a game reserve and allow hunting and shooting of wild animals under a special permit wherein the maximum number of the wild animals to be killed and the area and the duration for which such permit shall remain valid shall be specified.
(6) Such alterations in the boundaries of wild life sanctuaries, national parks and game reserves may be affected as the Government may approve.
24. (1) Where the Government is satisfied that an area of private land has been dedicated by its owner to the same purposes as a game reserve, the Government, on an application of the owner, declare, by notification in the official Gazette, such area to be private game reserve.
(2) The owner of such private game reserve shall, within its boundary, exercise all the powers of an officer under this Order.
(3) If the Government is satisfied that a private game reserve does not meet the requirements for being treated as such, the Government may, at] any time, declare, by notification in the official Gazette, that it has ceased to be a private game reserve from such date as may be specified in the notification
25. Interference by any one in the discharge of the duties of an officer shall be an offence
26. (1) If a person-
(a) contravenes or attempts to contravene the provisions of Article 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 23, he shall be punished with imprisonment which may, subject to the minimum of six months, extend to one year and also with a fine which may, subject to the minimum of Taka five hundred, extend to Taka one thousand, and the hunting license, gun license under Arms Act, 1878, shooting permit or special permit issued to such person shall be cancelled and the firearms, vehicles, vessels, watercraft, appliances or anything used in the commission of the offence including the wild animals meat or trophy found in his possession shall be confiscated;
(b) contravenes or attempts to contravene the provisions of Articles 6 and 25, he shall be punished with imprisonment which may, subject to the minimum of one year, extend to two years and also with a fine which may, subject to the minimum of Taka one thousand, extend to Taka two thousand and the hunting license, gun license under Arms Act, 1878, shooting permit or special permit issued to such person shall be cancelled and the firearms, vehicles, vessels, watercrafts, appliances or anything used in the commission of the offence including the wild animal, meat or trophy found in his possession shall be confiscated;
(c) contravenes or attempts to contravene the provisions of Articles 18 and 21, he shall be punished with a fine which may, subject to the minimum of Taka two hundred and fifty, extend to Taka five hundred.
(2) Any person who contravenes any provision of this Order or any rule made there under for the contravention of which no specific penalty has been provided, shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to Taka five hundred, or with both.
27. No court shall take cognizance of any offence under this Order except on the complaint of an officer
28. Nothing contained in this Order shall be deemed to prevent any person from being prosecuted under any other law for any act of commission or omission which constitutes an offence under this Order, or from being liable under any other law to any higher punishment or penalty than that provided by this Order.
29. When an offender is not known or cannot be found, any officer may, if he finds that an offence has been committed, confiscate the property used in the commission of the offence.
30. The Government may, as and when considers it necessary, set up a mobile court for trying offences under this Order.
31. (1) Any officer not below the rank of a Forester or Senior Wildlife Scout] may, without orders from a Magistrate and without a warrant, arrest any person against whom a reasonable suspicion exists of his having been concerned in any offence under.
(2) Every officer making an arrest under this Article shall, without unnecessary delay and subject to the provisions of this Order as to release on bond, take or send the person arrested before the Magistrate having jurisdiction in the case or the officer-in-charge of the nearest police station.
32. Any officer not below the rank of Forest Ranger or Wild Life Supervisor who, or whose subordinate,] has arrested any person under Article 31 may release such person on his executing a bond to appear, if and when so required, before the Magistrate having jurisdiction in the case or before the officer-in-charge of the nearest police station
33.Every officer shall be competent to take all lawful means to prevent the commission of any offence under this Order.
34. The offences under this Order shall be tried by a Magistrate of the First Class.
35. The District Magistrate or any Magistrate of the First Class specially empowered by the Government in this behalf may try an offence punishable under this Order summarily, under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898, subject to the provisions] of Chapter XXII of that Code.
36. (1) The Government may, by notification in the official Gazette, empower an officer-
(a) to accept from any person against whom a reasonable suspicion exists that he has committed any offence under this Order a sum of money by way of compensation for the offence which such person is suspected to have committed; and
(b) to release any property which has been seized as liable to confiscation, on payment of such value thereof as may be estimated by such officer;
(c) to discharge in such cases as may be prescribed the suspected person if he is in custody or to release the seized property on payment of such sum of money, or such value as compensation to such officer as may be determined and to withdraw the proceedings against such person or property.
(2) The sum of money accepted as compensation under sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall not be less than Taka one thousand and shall not exceed Taka two thousand.
(3) No officer shall have power to compound a second and subsequent offence 50. Committed by the same person or persons under this Order.
37. Any person in possession of arms under a licence issued under the Arms Act, 1878, and residing within 5 miles from,
the boundary of a wild life sanctuary, national park or game reserve shall, within such date as the Government may, by notification in the official Gazette, direct, apply to the nearest officer in the] prescribed form for the registration of his name.
all or any of the following powers, namely:-
(a) the power of a civil court to compel the attendance of witnesses and the production of documents and material objects;
(b) the power to issue a search-warrant under the 1898;
(c) the power to hold an inquiry into an offence under this Order and in the course of such inquiry to receive and record evidence; and
(d) the power to prosecute a case before
39. All officers under this Order shall be deemed to be public servants within the meaning of the section 21 of the Penal Code.
rank of Junior Wild Life Scout shall be treated as part of the uniform.
41. No suit, prosecution or other legal proceedings shall lie against any officer for anything done in good faith or intended to be done in pursuance of any provisions of this Order or the rules made there under.
person employed under this Order, assist him in the due discharge of his duties under this Order
43. An officer may, in the course of his official duties, resort to the use of firearms in exercise of his right of private defense of person and properties when the situation and circumstances are beyond the physical control of such officer.
44. The Government may, by notification in the official Gazette, delegate all or any of the powers conferred upon it under the provisions of this Order to any officer subordinate to it.
public purpose, allow, by notifications in the official Gazette, killing or capturing of any wild animal in such place and by such means as may be specified in the notification.
46. The Government may, by notification in the official Gazette, in respect of any specified area-
(i) add to or exclude from a Schedule any wild bird or animal subject to such conditions as may be prescribed;
ii) alter the period during which any wild bird or animal specified in the First Schedule may be killed
47. (1) The Government may, by notification in the official Gazette, make rules for the purpose of carrying into effect the provisions of this Order.
(2) In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may prescribe-
(a) the powers and duties of the officers
(b) the form in which, and the terms and conditions on which, a license or a permit or a special license or a special permit may be granted;
(c) the fees to be charged for any license or permit or a special license or special permit;
(d) in the case of any species of wild animals, the number and the sex that may be killed under a license;
48. The enactments mentioned in the table below are hereby repealed to the extent specified in the third column there of.
(e) rewards to be given to the persons who render help in the detection of offences under this Order;
(f) the authorities by whom licenses may be issued; and
(g) the management of wild life sanctuaries, national parks and game reserves.
BUDDHIST PERSPECTIVE ON ANIMAL RIGHTS
by Ronald Epstein
Dharma Realm Buddhist University and San Francisco State University
Based on a Paper Presented at the Conference
“Animal Rights and Our Human Relationship to the Biosphere”
San Francisco State University
March 29-April 1, 1990
we want to relate to you two striking examples of animals acting with more humanity than most humans. My point is not that animals are more humane than humans, but that there is dramatic evidence that animals can act in ways that do not support certain Western stereotypes about their capacities.
About fifteen years ago there was an Associated Press article with a dateline from a northern Japanese fishing village. Several people from a fishing vessel were washed overboard in a storm far at sea. One of the women was found still alive on a beach near her village three days later. At the time a giant sea turtle was briefly seen swimming just offshore. The woman said that when she was about to drown the turtle had come to rescue her and had carried her on its back for three days to the place where she was found.
In February of this year, also according to the Associated Press a man lost at sea was saved by a giant stingray:
A man claims he rode 450 miles on the back of a stingray to safety after his boat capsized three weeks ago, a radio station reported yesterday.
Radio Vanuatu said 18-year-old Lottie Stevens washed up Wednesday in New Caladonia. It said Stevens’ boat capsized January 15 while he and a friend were on a fishing trip.
The friend died and after four days spent drifting with the overturned boat, Stevens decided to try to swim to safety, Radio vanuatu reported. There were sharks in the area, but a stingray came to Steven’s rescue and carried him on its back for 13 days and nights to New Caladonia, the radio said. (AP, San Francisco Chroncicle, Feb. 8, 1990)
BASIC BUDDHIST PRINCIPLES
Unlike the Judeo-Christian tradition, Buddhism affirms the unity of all living beings, all equally posses the Buddha-nature, and all have the potential to become Buddhas, that is, to become fully and perfectly enlightened. Among the sentient, there are no second-class citizens. According to Buddhist teaching, human beings do not have a privileged, special place above and beyond that of the rest of life. The world is not a creation specifically for the benefit and pleasure of human beings. Furthermore, in some circumstances according with their karma, humans can be reborn as humans and animals can be reborn as humans. In Buddhism the most fundamental guideline for conduct is ahimsa-the prohibition against the bringing of harm and/or death to any living being. Why should one refrain from killing? It is because all beings have lives; they love their lives and do not wish to die. Even one of the smallest creatures, the mosquito, when it approaches to bite you, will fly away if you make the slightest motion. Why does it fly away? , because its fears death. It figures that if it drinks your blood, you will take its life. . . . We should nurture compassionate thought. Since we wish to live, we should not kill any other living being. Furthermore, the karma of killing is understood as the root of all suffering and the fundamental cause of sickness and war, and the forces of killing are explicitly identified with the demonic. The highest and most universal ideal of Buddhism is to work unceasingly for permanent end to the suffering of all living beings, not just humans.
The Buddha in a former life was reborn as a Deer-king. He offers to substitute his own life for that of a pregnant doe who is about to give birth. In another previous lifetime, the Buddha sacrificed his own life to feed a starving tiger and her two cubs, who were trapped in the snow. He reasoned that it would be better to save three lives than to merely preserve his own. It is better to lose one’s own life than to kill another being.
The following selections are from the Ta Chih Tu Lun:
The Relative Value of One’s Life and the Precepts
If it is not a case of my being attacked, then the thought of killing may be put to rest. If, however, one has been attacked, overcome by force, and is then being coerced [by imminent peril], what should one do then?
Reply: One should weigh the relative gravity [of the alternatives]. If someone is about to take one’s life, one [should] first consider whether the benefit from preserving the precept is more important or whether the benefit from preserving one’s physical life is more important and whether breaking the precept constitutes a loss or whether physical demise constitutes a loss.
After having reflected in this manner one realizes that maintaining the precept is momentous and that preserving one’s physical life is [relatively] unimportant. If in avoiding [such peril] one is only [able to succeed in] preserving one’s body, [then] what [advantage]is gained with the body? This body is the swamp of senescence, disease and death. It will inevitably deteriorate and decay. If, [however], for the sake of upholding the precept, one loses one’s body, the benefit of it is extremely consequential.
Furthermore, one [should] consider [thus]: “From the past on up to the present, I have lost my life an innumerable number of times. At times I have incarnated as a malevolent brigand, as a bird, or as a beast where I have lived merely for the sake of wealth or profit or all manner of unworthy pursuits. Now I have encountered [a situation where I might perish] on account of preserving the pure precepts. To not spare this body and sacrifice my life to uphold the precepts would be a billion times better than and [in fact] incomparable to safeguarding my body [at the expense of] violating the prohibitions.” In this manner one decides that one should forsake the body in order to protect [the integrity] of the pure precepts.
The Butcher’s Son and the Killing Precept
For example, there once was a man who was a srota- aapanna born into the family of a butcher. He was on the threshhold of adulthood. Although he was expected to pursue his household occupation, he was unable to kill animals. His father and mother gave him a knife and a sheep and shut him up in a room, telling him, “If you do not kill the sheep, we will not allow you to come out and see the sun or the moon or to have the food and drink to survive.”
The son thought to himself, “If I kill this sheep, then I will[be compelled to] pursue this occupation my entire life. How could I commit this great crime [simply] for the sake of this body?” Then he took up the knife and killed himself. The father and mother opened the door to look. The sheep was standing to one side whereas the son was [laying there], already expired.
At that time, when he killed himself, he was born in the heavens,If one is like this, then this amounts to not sparing [even one’s own] life in safeguarding [the integrity of] the pure precepts.
End Notes: A srota-aapanna is a first- stage arhat, otherwise known as a “stream-winner.”
(Translation and copyright by Dharmamitra)
I. The Rite of Liberating Living Beings is a Buddhist practice of rescuing animals, birds, fish and so forth that are destined for slaughter or that are permanently caged. They are released to a new physical and spiritual life. The practice exemplifies the fundamental Buddhist teaching of compassion for all living beings.
A disciple of the Buddha must maintain a mind of kindness and cultivate the practice of liberating beings. He should reflect thus: ‘All male beings have been my father and all females have been my mother. There is not a single being who has not given birth to me during my previous lives, hence all beings of the Six Destinies are my parents. Therefore, when a person kills and eats any of these beings, he thereby slaughters my parents. Furthermore, he kills a body that was once my own, for all elemental earth and water previously served as part of my body and all elemental fire and wind have served as my basic substance. Therefore, I shall always cultivate the practice of liberating beings and in every life be reborn in the eternally abiding Dharma and teach other to liberate beings as well.’ Whenever a Bodhisattva sees a person preparing to kill an animal, he should devise a skilful method to rescue and protect it, freeing it from its suffering and difficulties… (Brahma Net Sutra I 162)
In China the Rite of Liberating Living Beings was very popular and has continued to be so to the present day. It also is practiced in the United States at the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas in Mendocino County and at other Buddhist centers.
All beings-human or beast-
Love life and hate to die.
They fear most the butcher’s knife
Which slices and chops them piece-by-piece.
Instead of being cruel and mean,
Why not stop killing and cherish life?
(Cherishing Life, I, 83)
In Buddhism adhering to a completely vegetarian diet is a natural and logical ramification of the moral precept against the taking of life. The Bodhisattva Precepts also explicitly forbid the eating of non-vegetarian food.
Student: “…when you eat one bowl of rice, you take the life of all the grains of rice, whereas eating meat you take only one animal’s life.”
The [Venerable] Master [Hua] replied: “On the body of one single animal are a hundred thousand, in fact, several million little organisms. These organisms are fragments of what was once an animal. The soul of a human being at death may split up to become many animals. One person can become about ten animals. That’s why animals are so stupid. The soul of an animal can split up and become, in its smallest division, an organism or plant. The feelings which plants have, then, are what separated from the animal’s soul when it split up at death. Although the life force of a large number of plants may appear sizable, it is not as great as that of a single animal or a single mouthful of meat. Take, for example, rice: tens of billions of grains of rice do not contain as much life force as a single piece of meat. If you open your Five Eyes you can know this at a glance. If you haven’t opened your eyes, no matter how one tries to explain it to you, you won’t understand. No matter how it’s explained, you won’t believe it, because you haven’t been a plant!”Another example is the mosquitoes. The millions of mosquitoes on this mountain may be simply the soul of one person who has been transformed into all those bugs. It is not the case that a single human soul turns into a single mosquito. One person can turn into countless numbers of mosquitoes.
At death the nature changes, the soul scatters, and its smallest fragments become plants. Thus, there is a difference between eating plants and eating animals. What is more, plants have very short life-spans. The grass, for example, is born in the spring and dies within months. Animals live a long time. If you don’t kill them, they will live for many years. Rice, regardless of conditions, will only live a short time. And so, if you really look into it, there are many factors to consider, and even science hasn’t got it all straight.” (Buddha Root Farm, 64)]
Mahakashyapa asked the Buddha, “Why is it that the Thus Come One does not allow eating meat?’ The Buddha replied, “It is because meat-eating cuts off the seeds of great compassion.” (Cherishing Life, II 5)
Wholeheartedly embrace them in their future work for animal rights.
1) We should reduce the fear, hate, and thoughts of revenge generated by the torturing and killing of animals.
2) We should not be prey to negative emotions or violence. They compound the problem. Real solutions come from changing people’s minds rather than from creating confrontation and friction.
3) We should not limit our compassion to the animals and to those of like mind, but extend it to all living beings, even if we feel that some are clearly in the wrong. Compassion should be the basis of all our interactions with others, regardless of their views and actions in the area of animal rights.
CURRENT ANIMAL RIGHTS ISSUES FROM A BUDDHIST PERSPECTIVE
Although the following guidelines for working on animal rights issues follow clearly from fundamental Buddhist teachings, they are by no means exclusively Buddhist. My hope for this conference is that many of the participants, regardless of their religious views, will
1 The words “to wild animals” were substituted for the words “to animals” by section 2 of the Bangladesh Wild Life (Preservation) (Amendment) Act, 1974 (Act No. XVII of 1974)
2 The words “any wild animal” were substituted for the words “any animal” by section 2 of the Bangladesh Wild Life (Preservation) (Amendment) Act, 1974 (Act No. XVII of 1974)
3 The words “any wild animal’s” were substituted for the words “any animal’s” by section 2 of the Bangladesh Wild Life (Preservation) (Amendment) Act, 1974 (Act No. XVII of 1974)
4 The words “reptiles” was substituted for the word “raptiles” by section 2 of the Bangladesh Wild Life (Preservation) (Amendment) Act, 1974 (Act No. XVII of 1974)
5 The words “a wild animal” were substituted for the words “an animal” by section 2 of the Bangladesh Wild Life (Preservation) (Amendment) Act, 1974 (Act No. XVII of 1974)
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Bureau_of_Investigation”Investigation(CBI). Charge sheets can be filed directly by the Forest Department. Other enforcement agencies, often due to the lack of technical expertise, hand over cases to the Forest Department
“The Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972” from the Official website of: Government of India, Ministry of Environment HYPERLINK “http://www.envfor.nic.in/legis/wildlife/wildlife1.html”&HYPERLINK “http://www.envfor.nic.in/legis/wildlife/wildlife1.html” Forests
“Legislations on Environment, Forests, and Wildlife” from the Official website of: Government of India, Ministry of Environment HYPERLINK “http://www.envfor.nic.in/legis/legis.html”&HYPERLINK “http://www.envfor.nic.in/legis/legis.html” Forests
Official website of: Government of India, Ministry of Environment HYPERLINK “http://www.envfor.nic.in/”&HYPERLINK “http://www.envfor.nic.in/” Forests
Dutta, Riddick. (2007) Commentaries on Wildlife Law- Cases, Statutes HYPERLINK “http://wildlifelaw.in/index.html”&HYPERLINK “http://wildlifelaw.in/index.html” Notifications . Wildlife Trust of India. A commentary on the Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972, and includes a compilation of the Supreme Court and High Courts judgements on Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972, Indian Forest Act, 1927, Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 and other relevant statutes.