Importance of Learning
l Marketers must teach consumers:
– where to buy
– how to use
– how to maintain
– how to dispose of products
l Behavioral Theories: Theories based on the premise that learning takes place as the result of observable responses to external stimuli. Also known as stimulus response theory.
l Cognitive Theories: A theory of learning based on mental information processing, often in response to problem solving.
l Intentional: learning acquired as a result of a careful search for information
l Incidental: learning acquired by accident or without much effort
Elements of Learning Theories
l Forward Conditioning (CS Precedes US)
l Repeated Pairings of CS and US
l A CS and US that Logically Belong to Each Other
l A CS that is Novel and Unfamiliar
l A US that is Biologically or Symbolically Salient
Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning
l Stimulus Generalization
l Stimulus Discrimination
l Repetition increases strength of associations and slows forgetting but over time may result in advertising wearout.
l Cosmetic variations reduce satiation.
l Repetition is the basis for the idea that three exposures to an ad are necessary for the ad to be effective
l The number of actual repetitions to equal three exposures is in question.
Stimulus Generalization and Marketing
l Product Line, Form and Category Extensions
l Family Branding
Product Line Extension
Product Form Extensions
Product Category Extensions
l Consumers learn by means of trial and error process in which some purchase behaviors result in more favorable outcomes (rewards) than other purchase behaviors.
l A favorable experience is instrumental in teaching the individual to repeat a specific behavior.
l Positive Reinforcement: Positive outcomes that strengthen the likelihood of a specific response
l Example: Ad showing beautiful hair as a reinforcement to buy shampoo
l Negative Reinforcement: Unpleasant or negative outcomes that serve to encourage a specific behavior
l Example: Ad showing wrinkled skin as reinforcement to buy skin cream
Consumers Learn by Modeling
Appeal to Cognitive Processing
l Information is stored in long-term memory
– Episodically: by the order in which it is acquired
– Semantically: according to significant concepts
Peripheral Route to Persuasion
The Elaboration Likelihood Model
Phases of Brand Loyalty
l Cognitive: Loyalty to information
l Affective: Loyalty to a liking
l Conative: Loyalty to an intention
l Action: Loyalty to action