How Advertising Works

How Advertising Works

Chapter 4

How Advertising Works as Communication

•    The communication model

•    Advertising as communication

•    Adding interaction to advertising

•      Mass communication is generally a one-way process

•      Feedback is obtained by monitoring the response of the receiver to the message

How Advertising Works as Communication

•    The communication model

•    Advertising as communication

•    Adding interaction to advertising

•      The advertiser and the agency determine message objectives

•      Objectives predict the impact the message will have on the consumer

•      Noise hinders the consumer’s reception of the message

How Advertising Works as Communication

•    The communication model

•    Advertising as communication

•    Adding interaction to advertising

•      Feedback occurs in an environment of give-and-take communication

•      Achieved by using more interactive forms of marketing communication

The Effects Behind Advertising Effectiveness

•      AIDA (attention, interest, desire, action)

•      Think-Feel-Do

•      Facets model of effective advertising

•      The facets come together  to make up the unique consumer response to an advertising message


•     The process by which we receive information through our five senses and assign meaning to it


•      Being seen or heard

•      Media planners try to find the best way to expose the target audience to the message

•      IMC planners consider all contacts a consumer has with a company or brand


Selection and Attention

•      The ability to draw attention, to bring visibility

•      One of advertising’s greatest strengths

Interest and Relevance

•      Interest

–    The receiver of the message has become mentally engaged with the ad and the product

•      Relevance

–    The message connects on some personal level



•      Results when an ad initially makes an impression

•      Most evaluations of advertising effectiveness include a measure of awareness as an indicator of perception


•      Memory

•      Recognition

•      Recall

The Subliminal Issue

•      Subliminal effects are message cues given below the threshold of perception

•      Critics claim that advertising can manipulate people subconsciously and cause them to buy things they don’t want or need

•      Professionals and educators believe there is no real support for subliminal advertising


•     How consumers respond to information, learn, and understand something


•      The cognitive impact of an advertising message

•      A cognitive ad explains how a product works and what it can do for the consumer



•      Facts about product performance and features

•      Particularly important for products that are complex, have a high price, or are high risk

Cognitive Learning

•      When a presentation of facts, information, and explanations leads to understanding

•      Used by consumers who want to learn everything about a product before they buy it



•      Occurs when consumers understand the explanation of a competitive advantage

•      A consumer has to understand the features of a brand and be able to compare competing products


•      When the consumer remembers seeing the advertisements and remembers the copy points

•      Ads use jingles, slogans, catchy headlines, intriguing visuals, and key visuals

The Affective or Emotional Response

•     Mirrors a person’s feelings about something

–  Stimulates wants

–  Touches the emotions

–  Creates feelings


•      Influenced more by emotion or desire

•      Desire is based on wishes, longings, and cravings


•      Agitates passions or feelings

The Affective or Emotional Response


•      Liking a brand or ad is one of the best predictors of consumer behavior

•      If a consumer likes the ad, the positive feeling will transfer to the brand


•      Help the consumer identify with the brand on a personal level

•      Stronger than liking because it involves an element of self-identification


•     The process of making symbolic connections between a brand and characteristics that represent the brand’s image and personality


•      The brand stands for a certain quality

•      A bond or relationship is created based on these  meanings

Conditioned Learning

•      The way association implants an idea in a consumer’s mind


Brand Transformation

•      A brand takes on meaning when it is transformed from a product into something special

•      Differentiated from other products in the category by virtue of its image and identity

Brand Communication

•           Brand identity

•           Brand position

•           Brand personality

•           Brand image

•           Brand promise

•           Brand loyalty


•     The conscious intent on the part of the source to influence the receiver of a message to believe or do something


•      Mental readiness to react to a situation in a given way


•      Uses logic, reasons, and proofs to make a point and build conviction



•      When something prompts a person to act in a certain way

•      Marketing communications uses incentives to encourage response


•      Conviction

–    Consumers believe something to be true

•      Preference

–    An intention to try or buy a product

•      Source credibility



•      Measured both as an attitude and by repeat purchases

•      Built on customer satisfaction

Involvement’s Role

•           The degree to which a consumer is engrossed in attending to an ad or making a product decision

–        High involvement

–        Low involvement


•     The action response

•     Effectiveness is measured in terms of its ability to motivate people to do something

Try and Buy

•      Initiating action through trial

•      Trial is important because it lets a customer use the product without investing in its purchase



•      Making contact with the advertiser can be an important sign of effectiveness


•      Involves counter-arguing by presenting negative messages about an unwanted behavior