The Marketing Communication Process
Stages of the Negotiation Process
• The offer
– assess each parties’ needs and commitment
• Informal meetings
– trust-building among deal makers
• Strategy formulation
– review and assess factors to be negotiated
– formal, informal, short or long
• How to negotiate in other countries
– Team assistance
– Traditions and customs
– Language capability
– Determination of authority limits
– Negotiation ethics
– Holistic view
– The meaning of
Marketing Communications Strategy
Steps in Formulating Marketing Communications Strategy
The Promotional Mix
– any form of non-personal communication
• Personal Selling
– the use of person-to-person communication
– non-paid, commercially significant news
• Sales Promotion
– Direct inducements of
extra value or incentives
– Promoting interests of company by association
The Promotional Mix
• Push strategies
– focus on personal selling, considered essential in international marketing of industrial goods.
• Pull strategies
– depend on mass communications (advertising of consumer-oriented goods) to reach target audiences over long distribution channels.
• Integrated marketing communications
– coordinated use of a broad range of promotional tools to reach a target market.
• Direct marketing
– Is intended to elicit immediate and measurable responses to direct-response advertising, telemarketing, and direct selling.
– Direct mail depends on acquiring mailing lists that target the intended audience.
– Effective direct mailing require extensive planning of materials, format, and mode of mailing.
• The Internet
– can expand marketing communications world-wide with low costs.
Trade Shows and Missions
• Magnitude: Over 16,0000
trade shows generate $50
billion in business annually.
Trade Show Participation
• Reasons for participation
– Customer can examine the product.
– Goodwill and contact cultivation.
– Locating a trade intermediary.
– Opportunity to meet government officials and decision makers.
– Opportunity for market research and collecting competitive intelligence.
– Exporters able to reach sales prospects in brief time period at reasonable cost per contact.
• Reasons for not participating
– High cost.
– Identifying the “right” trade shows to participate in.
• The most effective promotional tool.
• Costs per contact are high.
• Yields immediate customer feedback and sales results.
• Keys to personal selling
– Salesperson’ has the ability
to adapt to the customer and
the selling situation.
– Salesperson must have a
thorough knowledge of the
product or service.