1. Planning & project management

This chapter aims at giving some basic information on how to run a project successfully. It is not intended to go into details.

Project management should always clarify the following points at the start of the project, be it in policy formulation or in the implementation phase (figure 24):

Targets, feasibility study social

Authorities, plan, Milestone
responsibilities,   schedule
legal aspects    

Users’ requirements


Figure 24: Contents of project management during a transport planning process (BOKU-ITS)

The different steps and measures in an implementation process have to be planned carefully. It can be vital for the success of the implementation to install a strategic instrument of a “meta­planning” which plans the main steps of the process, such as:

  • Analysis of problems/barriers
  • Determination of stakeholders involved in the implementation process
  • Analysis of information levels and attitudes of the stakeholders
  • Development of a suitable implementation process
  • Organisational structure (project management)
  • Participation of stakeholders, lobby groups, etc.
  • Suitable tools
  • Time schedule
  • Quality control and monitoring

Policy Formulation and Implementation

  • Accompanying public relations and awareness raising
  • Selection of an experienced, suitable and accepted project co-ordinator

Management structures

Project groups
All of these points are essential for success. The following figure 25 shows a recommended organisation of the management-structure for successful planning decisions. Figure 26 gives an example for a successful implementation of a package of measures in an Austrian project.

A project management group should consist of representatives of all stakeholders. Furthermore it should include experts and members of the different departments (for example of a city council) responsible for vital decision processes. This can speed up the implementation. A rough recommendation how to compose a project group for a local transport programme is given below.

Project-management-group for the implementation of local transport-programmes with public participation, spanning different departments of a city council:
Policy Formulation and Implementation

  • Maximum number: 25 persons
  • Internal experts of all relevant departments (interdisciplinary co-operation)
  • Extern experts as consultants
  • Representatives of:
  • the police
  • retailers
  • other lobby groups
  • politicians

Work-packages and time-schedules

The division of work into sub-tasks (work-packages, etc.) is apt to organise even complex tasks in smaller manageable units. The progress of a project can be monitored with a time-schedule.

For each sub-task the progress, deviations or alterations can be seen clearly. Problems appear clearly, changes, which are sometimes vital for the success of the project, can be made in time. The following figures 28 and 29 show examples of a work-package structure and of a time-schedule from an EU-research project.