1. National _ Differences

Differences in national law, distribution of responsibilities, political decisions, participation processes, etc. certainly exist in the various member states.

The EU-project TENASSESS provides summaries of transport policies (TENASSESS 1999, final report) and gives detailed insights in the ‘Europeanisation’ of transport policy.

Transferability of Policies (EU-project TRANSLAND 2000, final report)

The transferability of a policy or policy package (related to the case studies of TRANSLAND) depends on the country’s specific legal, administrative, political and cultural framework. A policy, which has successfully been implemented in one country, cannot simply be transferred to another country.

Measures of high transferability:

The following measures are easily transferable since they are not dependant on legal or institutional frameworks. Important for the successful implementation of the following measures is the need for supportive measures.

Investment measures (hard policies):

  • Expanding bicycle paths,
  • Promoting walking by building attractive footpaths,
  • Extending light rail, tram, underground and bus lines,
  • Increasing public transport stations,
  • Intermodality – public transport modes linked at intermodal transport modes.

Supportive Measures (soft policies):

  • Marketing/information campaigns,
  • Public participation in planning and implementation process,
  • Communication between decision-makers, investors and citizens,
  • Public-Private partnerships to complete construction of projects in a timely and less expensive manner,
  • Mobility Management, for instance car-sharing projects.

Measures of good transferability:

The following are mainly restrictive measures to reduce car traffic. These measures can be applied to any country, but are considered a bit more difficult to transfer since restrictive measures are not always accepted by the public and investors and require the right political environment.

  • Restricting car use in city centres,
  • Traffic calming zones/speed limits,
  • Small-scale car free zones,
  • Car free areas,
  • Car free housing,
  • Supplying Park and Ride Facilities.

Policy Formulation and Implementation

Measures which might be difficult to transfer

The higher the level of government is responsible for implementing a planning policy, the less transferable such a policy is to other countries.

Policy Formulation and Implementation

  1. Conclusions and recommendations
  • Policy Formulation and Implementation are the “cornerstones” of the planning process.
  • Policy Formulation aims at defining goals, allocating appropriate measures and presenting

scenarios of a possible future development.

  • Implementation is the realisation of policy formulation (of masterplans, projects, etc.).
  • Success of the planning process can be gained by
  • setting up a professional project management
  • supporting a parallel participation process
  • organizing an accompanying awareness campaign.

www.europrojects.ie/mae stro/
For further reading the following literature (EU-projects) is recommended:

– Final Report

  1. Exercises

The following suggestions can be taken for students’ exercises:

  • Participation : Role-playing : Participation-Meeting – each student has to play a defined role (involved citizen, mayor, representative of the project management, etc.) in a discussion on a topic which could be a current or a fictitious transport project/discussion.
  • Students Research (internet, TV, newspaper articles) on actual transport projects and on political attitudes of the various parliamentary parties towards transport policies ^ discussion on the findings.
  • Design of information / implementation campaigns by the students.
  • Design of information materials (folders/ flyers, posters, etc.) with important issues and contents on a chosen current or fictitious transport project/discussion.
  • Development of structured goals and indicators for a given transport project.
  • Design of a transport (master) plan for a given area (small town municipality) and/or a specific topic (bicycle infrastructure, PT-network, pedestrian network, etc.)

Policy Formulation and Implementation

  1. Literature


ASTRA – Consortium (2000): ASTRA – Assessment of Transport Strategies. Final report. Funded by the European Commission, 4th Framework RTD Programme, Karlsruhe 2000.


FATIMA – Consortium (1999): FATIMA – Financial Assistance for Transport Integration in Metropolitan Areas. Final Report. Funded by the European Commission, 4th Framework RTD Programme, Leeds 1999.


MAESTRO – Consortium (1999): MAESTRO – Monitoring Assessment and Evaluation Scheme for Transport policy options in Europe. Guidelines. Funded by the European Commission, 4th Framework RTD Programme, Oxford 1999.


POSSUM – Consortium (1998): POSSUM – Policy Scenarios for Sustainable Mobility. Final Report. Funded by the European Commission, 4th Framework, RTD Programme, London 1998.

No project-homepage available. CORDIS homepage: http://dbs.cordis.lu/

REFLEX – Consortium (1999): REFLEX – Reversible and Flexible measures for energy saving in transportation management. Final Report. Funded by the European Commission, DGXVII for Energy, SAVE II, Milano 1999.

No project-homepage available. CORDIS homepage: http://dbs.cordis.lu/

SCENARIOS – Consortium (1998): SCENARIOS – Scenarios for trans-European Network.. Final Report. Funded by the European Commission, 4th Framework RTD Programme, Arcueil 1998.

No project-homepage available. CORDIS homepage: http://dbs.cordis.lu/

SESAME – Consortium (1998): SESAME – Derivation of the relationship between land use, behaviour patterns and travel demand for political and investment decisions; construction of an European database. Final Report. Funded by the European Commission, 4th Framework RTD Programme, Lyon 1998.

No project-homepage available. CORDIS homepage: http://dbs.cordis.lu/

TENASSESS – Consortium (1999): TENASSESS – Policy Assessment of trans European networks and common transport policy. Final Report. Funded by the European Commission, 4th Framework RTD Programme, Vienna 1999.


TRANSLAND – Consortium (1999): TRANSLAND – Integration of Transport and Land Use Policies: State of the Art. Deliverable 2b. Funded by the European Commission, 4th Framework RTD Programme, Dortmund 1999.


Policy Formulation and Implementation

TRANSLAND – Consortium (2000):    Port and Land Use

Planning. Final Report. Funded by the European Commission, 4th Framework RTD Programme, Dortmund 2000.

TRANSPRICE – Consortium (2000): TRANSPRICE – Trans-Modal Integrated Urban Transport Pricing for Optimum Modal Split. Final report. Funded by the European Commission, 4th Framework RTD Programme, London 2000.

gridlock.york. ac.uk/transprice/

Other projects and literature for further reading

Commission of the European Communities (2001): White Paper “European transport policy for 2010: time to decide”. Commission of the European Communities, COM (2001) 370, Brussels 12/09/2001.

http://europa.eu.int/comm/energy transport/en/lb en.html

E-S-T – OECD Project (1999): E-S-T. Environmentally Sustainable Transport, Phase 3, Case Study “Alpine Region”-Austria. Final Report. By order of Federal Ministry for Environment, Youth and Family Affairs, Vienna, Division of Transport, Mobility, Regional Planning and Noise, Vienna 1999.

Kienast, G. (1988): Mit den Betroffenen, Signum Verlag Ges.m.b.H., Wien 1988.

Oesterreichische Forschungsgemeinschaft Strasse und Verkehr (FSV) (1984):

Verkehrsuntersuchungen – Rahmenrichtlinien fur Verkehrsuntersuchungen. Richtlinien und Vorschriften fur den Strassenbau, RVS 2.1, Wien 1984.

Sammer G., Bauer M., Fallast K., Saurugger V. (1992): Gesamtverkehrskonzept Wiener Neustadt 1992. Teil 2 Problemanalyse, Auswirkungen und Bewertung. Magistrat der Stadt Wiener Neustadt, Wiener Neustadt 1992.

Sammer G., Roeschel G. (1995): Verkehrsentwicklung fuer die Stadt Salzburg. Szenarien. Stadt Salzburg, Magistrat Verkehrsplanung, Gmunden-Graz-Wien 1995.

Sammer G. (1997): The gap between the aims and objectives of transport policy and reality – analysis and approach to solutions for the deficiency in implementation of environmentally acceptable transport plans of cycling promotions; Proceedings Velo City ’97, Barcelona 1997.

Sammer G. et. al (1998): Wirkungsanalyse B3 Donaufeld. Schlussbericht. Magistrat der Stadt Wien, MA 18 Stadtentwicklung und Stadtplanung, Wien 1998.

Sammer G., Roeschel G. (1998): Verkehrsverhalten Graz 1998. Im Auftrag des Magistrats Graz 1998.

Sammer G. (1999): Die verkehrspolitische Einstellung der Grazer – Meinungen und Fakten, Ergebnis einer empirischen Untersuchung, im Auftrag des Magistrats der Stadt Graz, Graz 1999.

Sammer G., Roeschel G. (2000): Verkehrsprogramm Mallnitz 2000.

Schlag B., Schade J. (2000): TransPrice report – Public acceptability of traffic demand management in Europe. In: Traffic Engineering & Control, The International Journal of Traffic Management and Transportation Planning; Vol. 41, No.8, September 2000.

Policy Formulation and Implementation

Selle K. (1996): Planung und Kommunikation. Gestaltung von Planungsprozessen in Quartier, Stadt und Landschaft. Grundlagen, Methoden, Praxiserfahrung. Bauverlag GmbH, Wiesbaden und Berlin 1996.

Thaller O. (1999): Impact analysis of urban road-use pricing on travel behaviour, the environment and the economy. Thesis. University for Bodenkultur Vienna, Institute for Transport Studies, Vienna 1999.

Policy Formulation and Implementation

  1. Glossary

Citizens’ Participation: Involvement of citizens in the transport planning process.

Green Paper: Draft of a (European Community) guideline on (transport) policies. Implementation: Realisation of a transport plan or project reverting to a variety of instruments.

Indicator: An Indicator describes the quantitative or qualitative impact of the current transport situation and of transport measures.

Masterplan: General concept of a long-term strategy for the future development of a transport system, ratified by a political decision.

Model: Listing of strategic goals of transport policy of the chosen scenario for a city, community, region, etc.

Scenario: Batch of measures, representing a certain political direction.

Scenario technique: Tool in the planning process. It means to draw a prospect on future development of traffic in case of implementing a batch of measures targeted at a certain political direction or goal.

Stakeholders: Participants resp. involved parties in a planning process: citizens, politicians, local/regional tradesmen, transport planners/traffic experts, representatives of media, representatives of interest and lobby groups, representatives of transport related organisations.

Transport Policy: Strategy of transport planning due to a certain political direction.

Transport Policies: Transport measures to fulfil defined goals.

White Paper: Strategic guideline on European (transport) policy.